SRP Annual Meeting
Sunday, October 07, 2007
Poster Session II with continental breakfast

1. Neural Correlates of Cognitive Control in Major Depression: Removing Negative Information from Working Memory
Authors: 1. Hannah S. Kang [Department of Psychology, Stanford University]
2. Jarold P. Hamilton [Department of Psychology, Stanford University]
3. Jutta Joormann [Department of Psychology, University of Miami]
4. Ian H. Gotlib [Department of Psychology, Stanford University]

Depressed individuals frequently experience recurrent and uncontrollable negative thoughts. Ruminative thinking is considered to play an important role in the onset and maintenance of depressive episodes. Recent work suggests that rumination in depression might be due in part to difficulties in removing irrelevant negative material from working memory. This study was designed to examine the neural correlates of this deficit in cognitive control. Diagnosed depressed and never-disordered participants were scanned as they performed a modified Sternberg task. For each trial, participants were told to memorize two lists, each composed of three positive, three negative, or three neutral words; they were subsequently instructed to ignore one of the lists while maintaining the other. Finally, participants were asked to indicate whether a probe word was a member of the relevant list, the irrelevant list, or was new. Consistent with previous work, depressed individuals showed increased interference from to-be-removed negative information. Correspondingly, activity in the amygdala was significantly higher in depressed than in never-depressed participants during attempted removal of negative words, but not of neutral or positive words, from working memory. These results indicate that this difficulty in cognitive control in depression is potentially subserved by increased amygdala activity.

2. Autobiographical Memory Specificity as a Predictor of Course of Unipolar Mood Disorders in Adolescents
Authors: 1. Jennifer Sumner [Northwestern University]
2. Susan Mineka [Northwestern University]
3. James Griffith [Northwestern University]
4. Richard Zinbarg [Northwestern University]
5. Michelle Craske [University of California, Los Angeles]

Numerous studies have found that, when asked to recall specific autobiographical memories, individuals with depression are more likely to report overgeneral memories and/or less likely to recall specific memories than nonclinical controls (Williams, Barnhofer, Crane, Hermans, Raes, Watkins, et al., 2007). In addition to being characteristic of depression, degree of overgeneral recall may predict the course of depression (e.g., Brittlebank, Scott, Williams, & Ferrier, 1993). However, not all studies have found overgenerality to be predictive of depression maintenance (Brewin, Reynolds, & Tata, 1999), and this remains an issue of contention. Little research has examined autobiographical memory in adolescents with mood disorders, and no studies have examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory is predictive of the course of mood disorders in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate whether overgeneral autobiographical memory is related to the course of unipolar mood disorders in adolescents. A sample of 333 high school juniors completed the Autobiographical Memory Test as part of a longitudinal study examining predictors of risk for anxiety and mood disorders, and yearly assessments have been conducted to determine depression status. Analyses will examine whether degree of overgeneral recall is associated with worse outcome over the course of approximately two years in those with a lifetime history of unipolar mood disorders.

3. Stressful Life Events Predict Illness Onset in Daughters of Depressed Mothers
Authors: 1. Katherine A. Kaplan [Stanford University]
2. Anda Gershon [Stanford University]
3. Pamela Schraedley-Desmond [Stanford University]
4. Ian H. Gotlib [Stanford University]

Background: Children of depressed parents are at high risk for developing psychopathology; stressful life events (SLEs) are an established risk factor for the onset of disorders. In this 30-month prospective study we examine the experience and impact of SLEs in a sample of adolescent girls. Methods: 22 daughters of depressed mothers (‘high-risk’ daughters) and 22 daughters of never-depressed mothers (‘low-risk’ daughters) were assessed at two time-points for psychopathology using clinical interviews, and for SLEs using the Adolescent Perceived Events Scale (Compas et al., 1987). On entry to the study (T1), none of the daughters had experienced current or past psychiatric disorders. Results: At T1, high-risk daughters experienced a greater number of SLEs than did low-risk daughters (p<.01). At T2, high-risk daughters who had developed a psychiatric disorder had experienced a greater number of SLEs (p<.05), major events (p<.05), and minor events (p=.07) than had high-risk daughters who had not developed a psychiatric disorder. Moreover, the number of SLEs and major events reported at T1 predicted diagnostic status at T2 among the high-risk daughters (p<.05). Conclusion: The experience of SLEs at T1 significantly predicts psychiatric outcome at T2 among girls at high risk for developing depression. Stress assessments administered to children of depressed parents prior to illness onset may have significant clinical utility.

Authors: 1. Kimberly Nylen [The University of Iowa]
2. Michael O'Hara [The University of Iowa]
3. Rebecca Brock [The University of Iowa]
4. Joy Moel [The University of Iowa]
5. Scott Stuart [The University of Iowa]

Recent research suggests that Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is an efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder occurring in the postpartum period; however, few studies have examined the long-term effects of treatment on maternal depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the course of self-reported depressive symptoms, as well as clinical diagnoses of depression, in the eighteen month period following treatment with IPT. One hundred twenty community women who met DSM-IV criteria for major depression received 12 weeks of IPT during the postpartum period. Following the conclusion of treatment, women reported their depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory at three month intervals, yielding a total of six assessment points corresponding to 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months post-treatment. In addition, women participated in three structured clinical interviews, corresponding to 6, 12, and 18 months post-treatment, to establish whether they met diagnostic criteria for major depression or other disorders during the follow-up period. Analyses were conducted with growth curve modeling techniques and the HLM 6 computer program in order to identify intrapersonal and interpersonal predictors of change in depression during the 18-month follow-up period.

5. Salivary Cortisol Sampling Among Girls at Risk for Depression: Measuring Compliance in Diurnal Collection
Authors: 1. Kirsten E. Gilbert [Stanford University]
2. Kelly L. Minor [Stanford University]
3. Ian H. Gotlib [Stanford University]

Repeated naturalistic collection of saliva is considered to be a reliable method of measuring diurnal cortisol secretion in both healthy and clinical populations. Although accurate timing of these collections is important, at-home compliance is typically assessed only with self reports, particularly with children. In the present study, we examined compliance of cortisol collection in mothers and their 9-14 year old daughters. Healthy daughters of either recurrent depressed or never-disordered mothers were instructed to collect saliva samples upon wakening, 30 minutes after wakening, mid-afternoon, and immediately before bedtime for two consecutive days. Unbeknownst to the participants, objective compliance of the saliva sampling was measured using a MEMS-6 electronic device. We found that the full sample of daughters reported collection times that were accurate to within ten minutes of actual collection times on Day 1. On Day 2, however, they demonstrated “sampling fatigue,” becoming less compliant over the course of the day. There were no compliance differences between the two groups of daughters. Interestingly, recurrent depressed mothers were more compliant than were the never-disordered mothers. Thus, healthy girls are moderately compliant with the saliva sampling protocol, although this compliance is reduced over longer periods. Given the importance of accurate sampling times, electronic recording devices may be warranted, especially for adolescents.

6. Explication of Interspousal Criticality Bias in Depression
Authors: 1. Kristina Peterson [University of Notre Dame]
2. Chaunce Windle [University of Notre Dame]
3. David Smith [University of Notre Dame]

Depressed people have a bias towards perceiving spousal criticism (Peterson, 2007). This study explores behavioral and intrapersonal correlates of this bias. Among other assessments, married couple participants (N = 108), completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976), Excessive Reassurance Seeking subscale of the DIRI (Joiner, Alfano, & Metalsky, 1992), and the Locus of Control of Behavior Scale (Craig, Franklin, & Andrews, 1984). They also engaged in a 10-minute discussion that was then coded for depression-relevant behaviors, using the Couples Interaction Rating System (Heavey, Gill, & Christensen, unpublished manuscript). Videotapes were coded for criticism by spouses and by independent raters in identical 30-second intervals. Bias was calculated using signal detection methods (Macmillan & Creelman, 2005). Depression was diagnosed using the SCID-I/NP (First, et al., 2001). Criticality bias was significantly associated with relationship phenomena (e.g., marital adjustment and attributions) but not with individual differences such as sociotropy, reassurance seeking, and locus of control. Behavioral observation data (e.g., demand, criticism) evidenced robust associations (rs ~ -0.60) with bias. Consistent with stress generation theories of depression (Hammen, 1991), criticality bias may be an interpersonal variation on traditional cognitive factors associated with depression – one that could manifest itself behaviorally to produce the negative interpersonal consequences we observed.

7. Do Depressed Persons’ Overgeneral Autobiographical Memories Generalize Across Autobiographical Memory Tasks?
Authors: 1. Lindsay Brauer [University of South Florida]
2. M. Kathy Long [University of South Florida]
3. Jonathan Rottenberg [University of South Florida]

Studies using the autobiographical memory test (AMT) have repeatedly found that individuals suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), report vague, script-like autobiographical memories when cued with happy or sad words, known as overgeneral memory (e.g., Williams & Broadbent, 1986). Rottenberg, Hildner and Gotlib (2006) raised the concern that the AMT may yield overgeneral memory for methodological reasons (e.g., weakness of cues, time constraints). To examine the generalizability of overgeneral memory outside of the AMT, we used both the traditional cue-word paradigm (AMT) and the Emotions Interview (EI; Rottenberg et al., 2006), which assesses peak emotional life events, to assess autobiographical memory functioning in a community sample of 18 depressed and 21 non-depressed controls. Memory tasks were administered in counterbalanced order. Because the EI uses stronger memory cues than the AMT and does not constrain response time, we predict that MDD participants will only exhibit overgeneral memory to the AMT and not the EI. To test our prediction, repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to examine the prevalence of overgeneral memories and differences in descriptive ratings across tasks and valence, by group. Unexpectedly, our preliminary results indicated that depressed persons exhibited a nonsignificant tendency towards overgeneral memory that generalized across tasks. Moreover, we observed a significant group by valence interaction, in which control participants exhibited more detailed negative memories than positive memories, whereas depressed participants exhibited the reverse pattern. Finally, the lack of group by task interactions suggests that autobiographical memory functioning in depression generalizes across different memory tasks. Implications of these results for the assessment and understanding of autobiographical memory processes in MDD will be discussed.

8. Family history of mood disorder, infant and toddler premorbid temperament characteristics, and cognitive deficits in pediatric bipolar disorder
Authors: 1. Lindsay S Schenkel [Rochester Institute of Technology]
2. Mani N Pavuluri [University of Illinois at Chicago]
3. Amy E West [University of Illinois at Chicago]
4. John A Sweeney [University of Illinois at Chicago]

Recent theories suggest that youth with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) exhibit more difficult temperaments premorbidly, including traits such as irregular biological rhythms, irritability, inflexibility, and behavioral disinhibition. Posner and Rothbart (2000) suggest an association between attentional networks and temperamental arousal and regulatory behaviors (effortful control) in the development of certain types of psychopathology. We investigated infant and toddler premorbid temperament characteristics, family history of a mood disorder, and cognitive functioning in 25 PBD youth. A battery of neurocognitive and neuropsychological tests were administered to assess attention, working memory, executive functioning, verbal memory, visual memory, motor skills, visuospatial perception, and emotion processing. All subjects were euthymic during the testing period. Family history of a mood disorder was significantly associated with more difficulty sleeping and greater irritability during infancy, more intense emotional reactions and irregular sleep and eating patterns during toddlerhood, and an earlier age of illness onset. More difficult temperament characteristics during toddlerhood were associated with lower intellectual and academic functioning, along with poorer performance on tasks of attention, working memory, executive functioning, and affect processing. Temperament characteristics were not associated with performance on tasks of verbal or visual memory, motor skills, or visuospatial perception. Findings suggest a possible link between familial risk factors, premorbid temperamental difficulties, and cognitive dysfunction among PBD youth.

9. The Effects of Depressed Mood on Binocular Rivalry between Facial Expressions
Authors: 1. K. Lira Yoon [University of Miami]
2. Sang-Wook Hong [Vanderbilt University]

While cognitive theories propose that depression is characterized by biased interpretation of ambiguous material, empirical support for this proposition is largely missing. We employed a binocular rivalry task to examine interpretive biases in dysphoria. In this task, two different stimuli are presented to each eye separately and participants are asked to indicate which of the stimuli they perceive at any given moment during the task. Previous research has demonstrated that the amount of time that a specific stimulus is perceived increases with its meaningfulness. This leads to a general predominance of emotional stimuli over neutral material. If dysphoric individuals, however, perceive neutral faces more negatively, these faces should be more meaningful to them, which, in turn, should diminish the relative predominance of emotional facial expressions during binocular rivalry. To investigate this hypothesis, two faces with different facial expressions were presented to each eye separately. We expected that faces with emotional expressions to have dominance over neutral faces. In addition, compared to the controls, dysphoric participants were expected to perceive neutral faces longer. Both hypotheses were confirmed. These results imply that neutral faces were more meaningful to the dysphoric individuals, suggesting that dysphoria is associated with an interpretive bias in the processing of interpersonal material.

10. Women’s Mood Variability During the Early Postpartum Period
Authors: 1. Melissa Buttner [University of Iowa]
2. Michael O'Hara [University of Iowa]

The postpartum blues is a common phenomenon following childbirth that may offer insight into the nature of mood variability and depression. It typically occurs between days three and five postpartum and is characterized by symptoms such as mood lability, tearfulness, anxiety, and elation. While the onset of symptoms is predictable, mixed findings regarding peaking and specificity of symptoms present barriers to proper assessment. We aim to recruit 300 newly delivered mothers from a public obstetrics and gynecology clinic. Mood ratings are completed on 10 consecutive days after childbirth to assess emotional experiences. A mood variability scale is administered at two time points to determine the extent to which participants experience changes in their mood. Measures of depression and personality are completed during the final assessment. We predict women who report higher levels of mood variability will be more likely to experience the blues. Further, it is expected that women who experience the blues will show higher scores on the depression inventory and on the neuroticism subscale of the personality measure. We are currently in the data collection phase of the study and expect to report on a substantial number of subjects by the time of the meeting in October.

11. Sleep Disturbances in Girls at High Risk for Depression
Authors: 1. Michael Chen [Stanford University]
2. Kirsten Gilbert [Stanford University]
3. Allison Harvey [University of California, Berkeley]
4. Ian Gotlib [Stanford University]

Sleep disturbances are among the most commonly reported symptoms in depression. It is not clear, however, whether sleep disturbances are a symptom of the biological changes that occur in depression, a consequence of depression, or a risk factor that precedes the development of this disorder. If sleep disturbance is associated with a vulnerability for depression, individuals at high risk for the development of this disorder may show signs of sleep disturbances in the absence of a history of depression. The present study was designed, in part, to examine this formulation by investigating sleep patterns in a high-risk sample of 10- 16-year-old girls who have no current or past diagnosis of depression or any other Axis-I disorder. Sleep function and disruption was assessed in 21 carefully diagnosed, never-disordered, daughters of mothers who have experienced recurrent depressive episodes during their daughter's lifetime, and in 48 never-disordered daughters of mothers with no history of psychopathology. The high-risk daughters reported greater weekend sleep disturbance than did daughters of never-depressed mothers. More specifically, high-risk daughters took longer to fall asleep and reported spending more time awake at night than did their low-risk counterparts. This pattern of findings supports the postulation that sleep disturbances represent a risk factor that precedes the development of depression and sets the stage for further investigation of the mechanisms underlying the association between sleep disruption and risk for depression.

12. Depressive symptoms and biased emotional forecasts for Valentine’s Day
Authors: 1. Michael Hoerger [Central Michigan University]
2. Stuart Quirk [Central Michigan University]
3. Kelley Borton [Central Michigan University]
4. Joseph McLaughlan [Central Michigan University]

Affective forecasting reveals that people overestimate the intensity of emotional reactions to future events. Cognitive theories of depression presume that the inaccurate expectations of depressed individuals reflect distorting biases core to the syndrome. To determine whether biased emotional forecasts varied as a function of depressive symptomology, a large group of undergraduates (N = 428) completed three measures of depression and reported their predicted and actual reactions to having or not having a date on Valentine’s Day. Consistent with our past research, nondaters overestimated how much negative affect they would experience on Valentine’s Day and daters overestimated how much positive affect they would experience. The pessimistic bias for not having a date was somewhat greater for those reporting high levels of depressive symptoms (d = 1.11) than for the comparison group (d = 0.70), however, greater levels of depression were also associated with more experienced sadness. A similar pattern of overestimating happiness was observed for those with a date with depressives indicating less experienced happiness. Results indicate the more pessimistic expectation of those with greater depressive symptoms link to less happiness/more unhappiness and thus are only mildly more distorted than the biased predictions of comparison individuals.

13. Individual Differences in Information Processing in Childhood: Coherence Among Measures and Relations to Child Temperament
Authors: 1. Patricia L. Jordan [Univeristy of Western Ontario]
2. Elizabeth P. Hayden [Univeristy of Western Ontario]
3. David J.A. Dozois [Univeristy of Western Ontario]

Maladaptive patterns of information processing have been implicated in depressive and anxiety disorders. Depression, for example, is associated with enhanced processing of negative and diminished processing of positive self-referent information, whereas anxiety is associated with attentional biases towards threatening information. Tasks designed to assess individual differences in information processing, however, are varied. Even those presumed to assess similar processes do not always demonstrate coherence (Gotlib et al., 2004). Understanding the relations between measures of information processing and their relations to depressive and anxious symptomatology is important for informing cognitive models of vulnerability. A community sample of 7-year-old children completed three measures of information processing: Self-Referent Encoding Task (SRET), Emotional Dot-Probe, and an Auditory Emotional Stroop. SRET scores were unrelated to measures of attentional biases derived form the emotional Stroop and dot-probe tasks. These results suggest that the SRET taps cognitive processes other than attention. Patterns of correlations between measures of attentional biases on the emotional Stroop and the dot-probe suggest that these tasks likely measure different aspects of attention. Patterns of information-processing are also discussed with respect to their association with parent-report and child-report measures of child symptomatology, as well as parent-report measures of child temperament.

14. Emotional Maltreatment and Depression: Prospective Prediction of Depressive Episodes
Authors: 1. Richard Liu [Temple University]
2. Lauren Alloy [Temple University]
3. Lyn Abramson [University of Wisconsin-Madison]
4. Wayne Whitehouse [Temple University]
5. Brian Iacoviello [Temple University]

The current study examined whether experiences of current emotional maltreatment predicted the development of new prospective episodes of depression in young adults. It also assessed whether current emotional maltreatment by peers, rather than by authority figures, better predicted the occurrence of depressive episodes. Greater overall emotional maltreatment was found to predict shorter time to onset of new depressive episodes. Furthermore, overall emotional maltreatment was a marginally significant predictor of shorter time to the occurrence of depressive episodes among low, but not high, cognitive risk participants, lending tentative support for the titration model in the hopelessness theory of depression (Abramson et al., 1989). In contrast, when peer- and authority-perpetrated emotional maltreatment were analyzed separately, neither predicted time to development of new depressive episodes.

15. Rumination affects working memory capacity in depression
Authors: 1. Sara Levens [Stanford University]
2. Ian Gotlib [Stanford University]

Rumination is conceptualized as a trait-like characteristic that leads to and perpetuates the negative affect that is central to depression. Previous research has shown that depressed individuals perform poorly on immediate memory span tasks, suggesting that working memory (WM) capacity is decreased in depression. It is not clear, however, why this decrease in WM capacity occurs. To examine the possibility that WM capacity is reduced because of rumination, we designed a study utilizing a rumination induction and an immediate memory span task. Diagnosed depressed and never-depressed participants recalled an initial set of word lists that served as a baseline measure of WM capacity. To assess the affects of rumination on WM capacity, participants were presented with four subsets of sentences from Nolen-Hoeksema’s rumination induction procedure. After each subset, participants were presented with a different word list to recall. Preliminary results indicate that, across all conditions, depressed participants recalled fewer words than did never-depressed participants. More important, however, rumination affected recall differentially for depressed and control participants: the difference in WM capacity between baseline and the rumination conditions was significantly greater for the depressed than for the never-depressed participants. These results suggest that WM deficits in depression are associated with rumination.

16. Does Depression History Moderate the Effect of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on Positive Emotions?
Authors: 1. Sarah Altman [University of Illinois at Chicago]
2. Bonnie Spring [Northwestern University]
3. Stewart A. Shankman [University of Illinois at Chicago]

Emotional eating, or specifically eating in response to depressed mood, may help explain increased obesity rates. Studies suggest that depression-vulnerable individuals may consume sweet carbohydrates in an effort to change their mood. Studies examining the effect of mood on consumption have focused on negative affect. However, depressed individuals may engage in emotional eating as a response to their low positive affect. One way of biologically influencing an individual’s mood is depletion of serotonin levels. The acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) challenge test reduces precursor supplies for the neurotransmitter serotonin, and has been applied extensively to study the pathophysiology of emotions and Major Depressive Disorder. Individuals predisposed to depression have reliably reported clinically significant increases in depressive symptoms 5 to 7 hours post-depletion. As part of a study on ATD’s effect on emotional eating, 68 participants (30 with depression history, 38 without) were given ATD and placebo challenge drinks on different test days separated by one week. Drinks were administered double blind and in a counterbalanced order. We have previously reported that ATD affected ratings of dysphoria. In the present study, we will report the effects of ATD on positive emotions and will also examine whether depression history moderates that association.

17. Parenting influences on developmental trajectories in cardiac psychophysiology and psychopathology in youth with depression and conduct disorder
Authors: 1. Sharon Brenner [University of Washington]
2. Theodore Beauchaine [University of Washington]
3. Hilary Mead [University of Washington]

We are currently completing data collection for a 2-year follow up of 140 youth with depression and/or conduct disorder, and youth with no psychiatric diagnosis. The study includes 3 assessment waves 1 year apart. Participants were initially ages 8-12, and are currently completing the 2nd follow-up visit. Data include cardiac psychophysiology as and both parent- and child-reports of parenting practices using the Parenting Scale and the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. Subscales on these measures include discipline strategies, parental monitoring, and parental support. Cardiac psychophysiology measures include both cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We are also collecting electrodermal responding (EDR) data. PEP and EDR are indices of behavioral activation and inhibition, respectively, which are salient to both depression and conduct disorder. RSA is a marker of emotion regulation. We will use hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the developmental trajectories of cardiac psychophysiology, EDR, and their relations to psychopathology based on (1) parent-, child-, and teacher-reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), (2) parent-reports on the Child Symptom Inventory, and (3) youth-reports on the Child Depression Inventory. In particular, we will examine the moderating effects of parenting practices on the relation between physiology and behavioral outcomes in adolescence.

18. The role of father-child interaction in mitigating the negative effects of maternal depression on children
Authors: 1. Sheehan Fisher [University of Iowa]
2. Michael O'Hara, Ph.D. [University of Iowa]
3. Robin Kopelman, M.D. [University of Iowa]

Maternal depression can have a significant effect on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors. A few studies have found that fathers’ positive interaction with their child can dampen the negative effects of maternal depression. Maternal depression also can affect the partner’s mental health and strength of the marriage. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which father-child interaction increases as mothers experience more severe depressive symptomatology. Subjects are 150 couples with a child aged 38 to 44 months. Depression is assessed using the Inventory to Diagnose Depression and the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale is used to assess marital adjustment. The Child Behavior Check List is used to examine child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. In addition, mothers and fathers record on a daily basis time spent on parental activities with their child for seven days. It is predicted that levels of father-child interaction will moderate the relation between maternal depression and child internalizing and externalizing behavior. Also, it is predicted that the quality of the marital relationship will moderate the relation between maternal depression and child internalizing and externalizing behavior. Recruitment of subjects is currently underway.

19. Bipolar Disorder Related to Increased Behavioral Approach System Activating and Deactivating Events, Not Goal Attainment Events
Authors: 1. Snezana Urosevic [UW-Madison]
2. Lyn Y. Abramson [UW-Madison]
3. Lauren B. Alloy [Temple University]
4. Michael E. Hogan [UW-Madison]
5. Robin Nusslock [UW-Madison]

Recent life events research has examined the nature of environmental triggers of hypomania/mania and goal-attainment events have been identified as such triggers (e.g., Johnson et al., 2000). Johnson and colleagues (2000) operationalized goal-attainment events as involving achievement of goals/rewards. However, basic affective science proposed a distinction between pre-goal attainment (e.g., goal striving) and post-goal attainment (e.g., goal achieved) states, suggesting that the former is related to behavioral approach system (BAS; e.g., Davidson, 1994). This distinction is especially intriguing given that dysregulation of the BAS is hypothesized to underlie bipolar disorder (e.g., Depue et al., 1987). Using a revised Life Events Interview (LEI; Francis-Raniere, Alloy & Abramson, 2006), the present study examined rates of 3 groups of events, weighted for severity on respective dimensions--BAS-activation events (i.e., goal striving), Goal-attainment events (e.g., reward/goal attained), and BAS-deactivation events (i.e., loss of reward or failure), in individuals with bipolar II disorder and cyclothymia vs. individuals without psychopathology. We predicted and found increased rates of BAS-activation and BAS-deactivation events in the bipolar group vs. the control group, but no differences in the rates of Goal-attainment events.

20. Placing Parent and Child Risk Factors for Child Depression Within the Larger Family Context
Authors: 1. Sylia Wilson [Northwestern University]
2. Emily Durbin [Northwestern University]

Research indicates that depression in parents is associated with significant impairments within the family environment, including increased family conflict and parenting deficits. Family factors have been linked theoretically to risk for psychopathology in offspring. However, little is known about the influence of child or co-parent characteristics on the parenting of depressed individuals. The present study examined relationships among child temperamental risk factors for depression, parental depression, and mother- and father-child dyadic interactions. Child temperament and parenting behaviors were assessed within a community sample of mothers, fathers, and their preschool-aged children using structured observational laboratory tasks. Neither maternal nor paternal depressive symptoms were associated with mothers’ positive parenting, but maternal depression predicted mothers’ negative parenting. In contrast, fathers’ positive and negative parenting was significantly predicted by maternal, but not paternal, depression. Child temperament traits significantly predicted mothers’, but not fathers’, positive and negative parenting, over and above the effects of parental depression. The association between parent and child risk factors and the parent-child relationship, as well as the impact one parent’s depression has on the other parent-child dyad, differ for mothers and fathers. These results have significant implications for families in which one or both parents are depressed.

21. Intentional Forgetting of Emotional Material in High and Low Ruminators
Authors: 1. Tanya Tran [University of Miami]
2. Jutta Joormann [University of Miami]

The tendency to ruminate is associated with an increased risk for the onset and maintenance of depressive episodes. Previous research suggests that deficits in inhibition underlie rumination. In this study, we used a directed forgetting task to examine the relationship between inhibition and rumination in the intentional forgetting of emotional material. Participants scoring high and low on a rumination measure were instructed to memorize positive and negative words. Halfway through the task, they were instructed to forget the words they had seen so far, and to memorize a new list. Finally, participants were asked to recall all words that were presented during the task. Deficits in inhibition were assessed through the recall of words from the to-be-forgotten list. We found a significant three-way interaction for the number of words recalled on the final test. While no differences between groups emerged in the number of words recalled from the to-be-remembered list, high ruminators recalled significantly more words from the to-be-forgotten list and reported more negative intrusions. High ruminators demonstrated enhanced recall of emotional words they had been instructed to forget. These findings suggest that the inhibition of emotional material might be closely associated with rumination, which is related to vulnerability to depression.

22. Neural Mechanisms of Emotion Regulation: An fMRI Study Using Painful Heat
Authors: 1. Tim V. Salomons [University of Wisconsin-Madison]
2. Regina C. Lapate [University of Wisconsin-Madison]
3. Misha M. Backonja [University of Wisconsin-Madison]
4. Richard J. Davidson [University of Wisconsin-Madison]

An inability to voluntarily regulate negative affect has been associated with various forms of psychopathology. Emotion regulation has been associated with neural regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) (Ochsner and Gross, 2005). Negatively valenced slides are commonly used, but recent work (VanReekum et al, 2007) has suggested that gaze aversion accounts for much of the variance in these effects. To get around this problem, we used fMRI to examine the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation using a non-visual negative stimulus, namely painful heat. Subjects were instructed to either “maintain”, “enhance” or “suppress” their response to the painful stimulus. Subjects rated their pain significantly lower (p<0.01) in the “suppress” condition than in either the “maintain” or “enhance” conditions. The neural response to pain was significantly greater in the “enhance” condition than the “maintain” condition in amygdala, pregenual ACC and ventrolateral and dorsolateral PFC. Activation in the “suppress” condition was significantly greater than in the “maintain” condition in dorsal medial, ventrolateral and dorsolateral PFC. These results support other work implicating these regions in dysregulation of negative affect and may be particularly relevant to the understanding how individuals cope with chronic pain.

23. Measures of Affective Instability: Correspondence between Questionnaires and EMA Indices
Authors: 1. Marika Solhan [University of Missouri]
2. Sarah Tragesser [University of Missouri]
3. Seungmin Jahng [University of Missouri]
4. Phil Wood [University of Missouri]
5. Tim Trull [University of Missouri]
6. Lauren M. Schaefer [University of Missouri]
7. Kevin A. Hallgren [University of Missouri]

We assessed the association between traditional questionnaire measures of affective instability (PAI-Affective Instability scale, Affective Lability Scales, Affective Intensity Measure-Negative Items) to indices derived from a four-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Stone & Shiffman, 1994) of eighty-five outpatients (47 with BPD and affective instability; 38 with current depressive disorder but not BPD or affective instability). The participants carried electronic diaries for approximately one month and were randomly prompted to rate their mood state (PANAS negative affect items) up to six times a day. Two EMA indices of affective instability were derived: (1) an index of change on successive scores; and (2) the probability of acute, extreme changes (> 90th percentile of change scores across participants) in scores on successive occasions. Results indicated only modest correspondence between questionnaire scores and the EMA indices for instability of successive scores on negative affect both directly before (r=.26 [AIM], .21 [ALS], and .43 [PAI-AI]) and after the EMA assessment (r=.30 [ALS], .30 [AIM], and.47 [PAI-AI]). Concerning the EMA probability of acute change, there was only modest correspondence as well for questionnaires completed both directly before (r=.29 [AIM], .20 [ALS], and .36 [PAI-AI]) and after the EMA assessment (r=.33 [ALS], .35 [AIM], and .44 [PAI-AI]). These results suggest that more immediate, momentary assessments of mood provide a different, perhaps complementary, assessment of the instability of negative affect.

24. An Examination of the Social Adjustment Scale in a Sample of Patients with Recurrent Depression
Authors: 1. Eunyoe Ro [University of Iowa]
2. Lee Anna Clark [University of Iowa]
3. Robin Jarrett [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas]
4. Jeffrey Vittengl [Truman State University]

The Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report form (SAS-SR: Weissman & Bothwell, 1976) is a widely used measure of psychosocial functioning. However, many SAS-SR items confound assessment of level of functioning with negative affect. Moreover, the measure merges a range of distinct affect items into one general feeling scale. This project examines relations between functioning and depression when these confounds are removed using two different versions of the SAS-SR: the original version (OV) and the modified version (MV). The MV consists of separate subscales for psychosocial functioning, negative affect, low positive affect, and general feeling. Data are from a large maintenance-cognitive-therapy outcome study conducted at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Results indicate that MV psychosocial functioning total scores are consistently less confounded with depressive symptoms at various time points. Three affect subscales also varied in their relations with functioning and depression scores indicating the utility in separate assessment of each domain.

25. Self- and observer-reports of personality: Associations with internalizing psychopathology
Authors: 1. Benjamin D. Schalet [Northwestern University]
2. C. Emily Durbin [Northwestern University]
3. Elizabeth P. Hayden [University of Western Ontario]
4. Kathryn A. Mendelsohn [Northwestern University]

Past research on personality has demonstrated that higher-order personality traits, such as neuroticism, are reliably associated with numerous indicators of psychological adjustment, such as depression. The majority of research examining the correlates of adult personality traits has been conducted using self-report measures of personality. This mono-method bias may limit the generalizability of claims about personality's association with psychopathology. Modeled on the work of Goldsmith et al. (1995) and Borkenau et al. (2004), we designed a set of 11 laboratory tasks in order to elicit personality-relevant behaviors in adults. These tasks were subsequently administered to 80 undergraduates who also completed self-report measures of extraversion and neuroticism (Big Five Mini-markers; Saucier, 1994), abnormal personality traits (SNAP-SRF; Harlin & Clark, 1999), and anxiety and depression. Observers then rated the videotaped behaviors on the Big Five Minimarkers of personality (Saucier, 1994). We will present results on the relative strength of association between self- and observer-rated personality traits and self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and abnormal personality.

26. Interrelations among youth temperament, executive functions, and externalizing behaviors
Authors: 1. Robert D. Latzman [University of Iowa]
2. Lee Anna Clark [University of Iowa]
3. Kristian E. Markon [University of Iowa]

Substantial empirical literatures link neuropsychological executive functioning and temperament, respectively, to externalizing behaviors (e.g., hyperactivity, impulsivity, conduct problems), but they rarely have been considered jointly. The present study examines interrelations among these three domains empirically. The investigation examines interrelations among temperament traits of the “Big Three” personality dimensions, Negative and Positive Temperament, and specifically focused on Disinhibition, neuropsychological measures of executive functions, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of male youth ages 11 to 16 years. Youth are administered a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological measures tapping the broad domain of executive functions and complete a personality measure assessing both primary traits and broad temperaments. Mothers report on their son’s temperament and externalizing behaviors. Interrelations among the three domains of interest will be examined and it is hypothesized that measures of both temperament and executive functioning will predict externalizing behavior despite modest relations between the two predictor domains.

27. Emotional styles, anhedonic depression, and worry
Authors: 1. Keith Bredemeier [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign]
2. Howard Berenbaum [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign]
3. M. Tyler Boden [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign]
4. Renee Thompson [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign]

There is growing interest in how different facets of emotional experience are associated with emotional disorders (e.g., Mennin et al., 2007). However, research has generally focused on emotional traits rather than types. We examined the relation between "emotional styles" and anhedonic depression and worry. Using an extreme groups approach, from an initial sample of 634 unselected college students, anhedonic depression and worry scores were used to derive four groups: control (n = 101), pure worry (n = 44), pure depression (n = 42), and comorbid worry and depression (n = 42). Using self-reported scores of affect intensity, attention to emotion, and clarity of emotion, we divided participants into four clusters based on Gohm (2003): cerebral (low attention, high clarity, low intensity), cool (low attention, low clarity, low intensity), hot (high attention, high clarity, high intensity), and overwhelmed (high attention, low clarity, high intensity). Results revealed that all clinical-status groups differed significantly in their composition of emotional styles; the control group was largely cerebral, the worry group was largely hot, the depression group was largely cool and cerebral, and the comorbid group was largely overwhelmed. These findings suggest that different emotional styles may be associated with different patterns of psychological distress.

28. Psychophysiology of Panic & Agoraphobia: The Influence of Symptom Severity on Defensive Reactivity
Authors: 1. Lisa M. McTeague [University of Florida]
2. Joshua R. Shumen [University of Florida]
3. Marie-Claude Laplante [University of Florida]
4. Margaret M. Bradley [University of Florida]
5. Bruce N. Cuthbert [University of Minnesota]
6. Peter J. Lang [University of Florida]

According to the diagnostic criteria, panic disorder is defined by chronic physiological hyperarousal and defense system hypersensitivity. Thus, with increasing endorsement of panic-related apprehension, sensitivity to interoceptive cues, and agoraphobia, clinician-rated severity and functional interference reliably increase. However, these criteria are based upon verbal report. How does the measurement of physiological reactivity covary with dimensional interview and self-report indices of panic symptoms? As symptom-severity worsens, does the defensive physiology of panic disorder show similarly elevated reactivity as suggested in the self-report literature? To address this possible covariation, individuals experiencing panic disorder with (n=45) and without agoraphobia (n=20) and demographically-matched controls (n=55) were cued by six-second auditory scripts that varied in pleasure and arousal as prompts for emotional imagery. Psychophysiological measures included the startle reflex and responses in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial electromyography. Paradoxically, defensive reactivity and symptom-severity showed an inverse relationship such that increasing anxiety sensitivity, agoraphobic avoidance, and apprehension of panic predicted reduced defensive reactivity. Therefore, unlike phobic disorders, which show defense system hyper-activity with increasing symptom severity, the chronic and pervasive apprehension characteristic of panic disorder potentially impairs appropriate physiological mobilization during defensive responding.

29. Executive Cognitive Function Moderates the Relationship Between Stress and Externalizing/Internalizing Syndromes
Authors: 1. Ashley Kilmer [University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign]
2. Edelyn Verona [University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign]
3. Will Kalkhoff [Kent State University]

The current study examined the moderating role of higher order cognitive processes (or executive cognitive function; ECF) in the relationship between stress exposure and externalizing (aggression) and internalizing (depression) symptoms. A college student sample and a “high risk” community sample of men and women were included in analyses. We collected self-report measures of participants’ amount and subjective experience of stress, engagement in aggressive behaviors, and depressive symptoms in the last month. To measure ECF, a battery of neuropsychological measures was administered. Multiple regression analyses (controlling for IQ) revealed an interaction between the perceived magnitude of stressors and general ECF ability for aggressive behavior but not depression symptoms. Follow-up correlation analyses revealed that stress and aggression were only correlated for those with low ECF ability. This finding indicates that those with high ECF ability are able to engage in emotion and behavior regulation to generate alternative responses to stress. Correlation analyses conducted on depression revealed that stress is related to depression regardless of ECF ability. Taken together, these findings suggest that ECF ability is a protective factor for the development of externalizing behaviors, but not internalizing, among individuals who perceive a high level of stress in their lives.

30. Pain Endurance, Self-Harm, and Self-Worth: An Experimental Study
Authors: 1. Jason Angel [Harvard University]
2. Jill Hooley [Harvard University]

Previous research with individuals who engage in self-harm has found that they are (1) more willing than healthy controls to endure physical pain and (2) that their increased pain endurance is correlated with having a more negative sense of self-worth. In this study we explored clinical and personality differences between 34 participants who engaged in various forms of self-harming behaviors and 61 healthy controls. We also examined differences in pain endurance between the two groups and tested the hypothesis that increasing the self-worth of the self-harmers through a brief experimental manipulation would result in a reduction of their willingness to endure pain. As expected, self-harmers scored significantly higher than controls on many personality disorder constructs assessed using the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality (SNAP). They also reported more dissociation, higher levels of negative affect and lower levels of positive affect. Furthermore, as predicted, self-harmers scored higher on a measure of negative self worth and, in a baseline assessment, endured pressure pain applied to the finger for significantly more time than did controls. However, at retest, and after receiving a brief (5 minute) experimental manipulation designed to engender more positive feelings about the self, participants in the self-harm group showed a significant (62 second) reduction in how long they endured pain. In contrast, controls who received the same experimental manipulation showed a non-significant 6.5 second reduction in their pain endurance from baseline to retest. Although preliminary, the findings are suggestive of a link between self-harming tendencies, pain endurance, and a highly negative view of the self.

31. Should We Broaden the Definition of Self-Injurious Behaviors?
Authors: 1. Sarah St. Germain [Harvard University]
2. Jill Hooley [Harvard University]

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is usually defined as the direct and deliberate destruction of body tissue without suicidal intent. Obvious examples are cutting and burning. However, other forms of pathology that involve people mistreating or abusing themselves may also warrant consideration as part of a spectrum of self-harming behaviors. In this preliminary study we explored the similarities and differences between people who engaged in direct forms of self-injury (e.g., cutting or burning; n=19) and people who engaged in only indirect forms of self-injurious behavior (indirect SIB; n=14) such as continued involvement in abusive relationships, substance abuse, and eating disordered behaviors. Participants in both groups scored comparably on a broad range of measured traits including self-criticism, PANAS-measured positive and negative affect, and dissociation (measured using the DES). Additionally, both groups scored similarly on measures of low self-esteem, anger, and dependency (assessed using the SNAP). However, there were also some important differences between the direct and indirect-only SIB groups. On the SNAP, those who engaged in direct SIB scored significantly higher than those who engaged in only indirect SIB on suicide potential, depression, and trait impulsivity. Additionally, direct self-injurers scored higher on eccentric perceptions and reported more paranoid and schizotypal traits than did those who engaged only in indirect forms of self-injury. Although these findings suggest that people who engage in direct and indirect forms of SIB may have much in common, certain traits may be especially associated with direct self-injury. These results have implications for models that seek to understand why people engage in self-harming behaviors in general and direct forms of self-injury in particular.

32. Excessive affective startle during unpleasant but not pleasant pictures in borderline personality disorder
Authors: 1. Erin A. Hazlett [Mount Sinai School of Medicine]
2. Kim E. Goldstein [Mount Sinai School of Medicine]
3. M. Mehmet Haznedar [Mount Sinai School of Medicine]
4. David Meyerson [Mount Sinai School of Medicine]
5. Monte S. Buchsbaum [Mount Sinai School of Medicine]
6. Larry J. Siever [Mount Sinai School of Medicine]
7. Antonia S. New [Mount Sinai School of Medicine]
8. Philip D. Harvey [Mount Sinai School of Medicine]

Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently display affective dysregulation which is often characterized by extreme emotional reactivity. Affective startle provides a reliable, non-verbal measure of the magnitude of emotional processing of stimuli. We assessed startle eyeblink amplitude in age- and sex-matched healthy controls and unmedicated borderline personality disorder patients (23 in each group) while they viewed an intermixed series of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The BPD patients exhibited larger startle eyeblinks during the unpleasant but not neutral or pleasant pictures compared with the controls (Group × Valence interaction, p=.02). Self-report ratings of valence showed that the BPD patients rated the unpleasant pictures as less unpleasant than controls but there were no group differences for neutral or pleasant pictures (Group × Valence interaction, p=.03). The BPD patients did not differ from normal in eyeblink amplitude during the pleasant pictures which are matched to the unpleasant pictures on their high arousal level. Therefore, our findings suggest that the BPD abnormality is not one of general hyperemotional processing. Instead, our findings suggest the patients show exaggerated emotional processing as indexed by startle eyeblink which is specific to unpleasant stimuli.

33. Attachment, transitional objects, and borderline personality disorder: Positive findings for the “positive bear” sign
Authors: 1. Molly Wilson-Murphy [Harvard University]
2. Jill Hooley [Harvard University]

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by tumultuous, unstable personal relationships, difficulty being alone, and an inability to self-soothe. This may explain why patients with BPD tend to develop strong attachments to transitional objects such as stuffed animals. Research in hospital settings has linked the use of transitional objects to the presence of borderline PD. We explored whether adults in the general community who had strong attachments to stuffed animals or other transitional objects scored higher on borderline traits than those who did not have strong attachments to transitional objects. Sixty-one females and 19 males who reported different levels of attachment to transitional objects were interviewed regarding their relationship to transitional objects. Participants also completed the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) as well as measures of relationships, childhood trauma, and parental rearing styles. People who reported strong current attachments to transitional objects were significantly more likely to meet criteria for a BPD diagnosis than those who did not; they also reported more childhood trauma, rated their early caregivers as less supportive, and had more attachment problems as adults. This is the first study to document the link between BPD and transitional object use in a community sample. The findings highlight the role of disturbed early attachment relationship in this disorder.

34. Automatic emotion modulation of fear in Borderline Personality Disorder: What neural regions are involved?
Authors: 1. Colin Sauder [Boston VA Healthcare System]
2. Mary Zanarini [McLean Hospital]
3. Itamar Roenen [Boston University School of Medicine]
4. Dae-Shik Kim [Boston University School of Medicine]
5. Katherine Putnam [VA Boston Healthcare System]

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is represented by marked emotional instability that is likely rooted in oversensitivity to emotional stimuli and an inability to inhibit emotional response. Previous research has shown that the amygdala and insula are both important in arousal and vigilance to negative emotional stimuli. However, how these regions interact with facial recognition areas to produce emotional response has not been studied in BPD. To examine this, we used a rapid event-related fMRI paradigm and measured BOLD signal while participants completed a matching task while exposed to pictures of threatening faces. A Group (BPD n=13, Healthy Control n=15) x Condition voxel-wise ANOVA revealed significant interactions in the fusiform facial area (FFA), amygdala, and insula. We extracted BOLD signal from these a priori identified regions and performed t-tests that demonstrated no significant group difference in FFA function (p=.13), but significantly more insula and amygdala activation (p<.01) in the BPD group. It appears that individuals with BPD do not process or attend to threatening facial stimuli differently than the control group, but yet these stimuli produce greater arousal and vigilance. This suggests a dissociation in the neural function of regions associated with emotional responsivity to threatening facial stimuli.

35. Predictive Validity of the Five-Factor Model Prototype Scores for Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders
Authors: 1. Stephanie Stepp [University of Missouri, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinci]
2. Tim Trull [University of Missouri]

We assessed the predictive validity of Five-Factor Model (FFM) prototype scores for antisocial and borderline personality disorders over a period of up to six years in a large community sample (N = 857). Generally, these prototype scores demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with health behaviors, disinhibitory behaviors, measures of psychopathology, and leisure activities and interests up to six years after the initial FFM personality assessment. We also found support for the incremental validity of the antisocial and borderline personality prototype over the remaining FFM personality disorder scores in predicting health behaviors, disinhibitory behaviors, and measures of psychopathology. While the prototype scores are not intended to be a substitute for DSM diagnoses, these results do demonstrate that FFM personality traits can account for problems associated with personality disorder pathology. The implications for the classification and assessment of personality disorders are discussed.

36. Behavior-brain relationships in parietal cortex among individuals with schizophrenia
Authors: 1. Aaron Bonner-Jackson [Washington University in St. Louis]
2. Brenda Kirchhoff [Washington University in St. Louis]
3. John Csernansky [Washington University in St. Louis]
4. Deanna Barch [Washington University in St. Louis]

Impairments in frontal lobe functioning are known to contribute to episodic memory deficits among individuals with schizophrenia. However, newer evidence suggests that other brain regions, including areas of parietal cortex, may play beneficial roles for individuals with schizophrenia in the retrieval of previously-learned information. Specifically, it has been postulated that regions of the parietal lobe compensate for impairments in more anterior brain regions in schizophrenia, although such a possibility has not yet been fully explored. Using fMRI, we compared verbal episodic retrieval-related brain activity and memory performance of 32 schizophrenia participants and 92 healthy controls following a levels-of-processing encoding manipulation. We then performed correlations between retrieval-related brain activation and memory performance for each group separately. Subsequent memory performance did not differ between groups for deeply encoded words, although controls recognized significantly more words overall than schizophrenia participants. Regarding the neuroimaging results, participants with schizophrenia demonstrated significant positive correlations between retrieval-related brain activity and memory performance in various regions of left parietal cortex, whereas such relationships were not detected among control participants. These preliminary results suggest a primary role of left parietal cortex for successful episodic memory retrieval in schizophrenia, and we believe that this region may provide compensatory support for frontal lobe deficits typically observed in individuals with schizophrenia during memory processing.

37. A comparison of positive and negative symptom types in White and Latino patients with schizophrenia
Authors: 1. Amy Weisman de Mamani [University of Miami]

Family members of patients from less traditional societies have been found to have higher rates of high expressed emotion (EE; greater levels of criticism, hostility and, emotional overinvolvement towards patients), a known marker of poor outcome for patients. For example, rates of high EE are over three times greater in Anglo versus Latino family members (Weisman de Mamani et al., 2007). These observations might lead us to expect Latinos and patients from other traditional cultures to have lower rates of psychiatric symptoms than their Anglo counterparts. In support of this hypothesis, the present study found that Anglos (n=15; M=43.40), compared to Latinos (n=17; M=36.71), did have significantly greater mean levels of symptom severity, based on summed scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, t(30)= 1.76; p<.05. However, Crow (1980) hypothesized that negative symptoms signify structural brain abnormality and therefore, unlike positive symptoms, are not likely to be affected by geographic and societal factors. We did not find support for this hypothesis, when BPRS scores were broken down by positive and negative symptom clusters.) Findings from this study may suggest that the protective factors associated with having a mental illness in traditional cultures extends equally to both positive and negative symptoms.

38. Recognition of posed and spontaneous facial expressions of emotion in paranoid, nonparanoid schizophrenia patients, and healthy controls
Authors: 1. Annie St-Hilaire [Kent State University]
2. Jennifer M. Aakre [Kent State University]
3. Amanda McCleery [Kent State University]
4. James P. Seghers [Kent State University]
5. Nancy M. Docherty [Kent State University]

Impairment in facial affect recognition has been linked to schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that the degree of impairment varies as a function of clinical subtype. Paranoid patients have been found to be more accurate than nonparanoid patients at recognizing posed and spontaneous facial expressions of negative emotion, and, more accurate even than nonpsychiatric controls at identifying spontaneous expressions of negative emotions. This is noteworthy given that spontaneous expressions are generally less intense and more ambiguous than posed expressions of emotion. The purpose of this study was to replicate and explicate paranoid patients’ heightened sensitivity to spontaneous expressions of negative emotions. Twelve paranoid patients, 12 nonparanoid patients, and 13 controls completed an emotion recognition task and a battery of cognitive measures. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVAs. Contrary to expectations, we failed to replicate prior findings. Paranoid patients did not display heightened recognition of spontaneous expressions of negative emotion. Paranoid patients, however, were found to be significantly better than nonparanoid patients and controls at determining whether emotions displayed were posed or spontaneous. The results of this study suggest that paranoid patients are better able to distinguish between posed and spontaneous expressions, but not to identify specific negative emotions.

39. Olfaction and social functioning deficits in a community sample at risk for schizophrenia
Authors: 1. Amy Wilson [University of Maryland]
2. Jaymee Carreno [University of Maryland]
3. Courtney Forbes [University of Maryland]
4. Monica Mann-Wrobel [University of Maryland]
5. Alice Saperstein [University of Maryland]
6. Jack Blanchard [University of Maryland]

Olfactory deficits have been identified in schizophrenia and their family members. These deficits in olfaction are thought to reflect impairment in neural circuits that subserve social affiliation. Consistent with this conjecture, olfactory performance has been shown to be correlated with clinical ratings of social impairment in schizophrenia. This impairment has also been identified in family members of patients with schizophrenia and may represent a genetic vulnerability to the disease. However, there has been no examination of the relationship between olfactory performance and social affiliation in community at risk samples. To address this issue we examined olfaction in a community sample enrolled in the Maryland Longitudinal Study of Schizotypy. Social anhedonics (N = 86) and controls (N = 89) completed a test of olfaction along with assessments for personality disorders and social functioning. It was hypothesized that social anhedonics would demonstrate poorer olfactory performance than controls. Results indicated that compared to controls, social anhedonics evidenced elevated dimensional ratings of schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorder. Further, social anhedonics had lower social functioning than did controls across a range of measures. While there were significant group differences in olfaction, social anhedonics actually had modestly better olfactory performance than did controls (F (1, 148) = 5.069, p = .026). Correlational findings indicated that olfaction was not related to any social functioning measure within either group. These findings are inconsistent with the hypothesized linkage between olfaction and social affiliation.

40. Attributional Style in Schizophrenia: Associations with Grandiosity, Suspiciousness, and Depressed Mood
Authors: 1. Jennifer M. Aakre [Kent State University]
2. Annie St-Hilaire [Kent State University]
3. Amanda McCleery [Kent State University]
4. James P. Seghers [Kent State University]
5. Nancy M. Docherty [Kent State University]

Several studies have found some evidence for a self-serving, personalizing attributional style in schizophrenic patients with persecutory delusions; however, findings have been inconsistent. These inconsistent findings are possibly due to the presence of grandiose beliefs or depressed mood in persecutory-deluded patients, such that paranoid patients who are also depressed may have an attributional style more closely resembling that of depressed persons, while persecutory-deluded patients who are also grandiose may show a more self-serving attributional style. The present study will assess the relationships among grandiosity, depression, suspiciousness, and attributional style in a group of outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, using the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ; Kinderman and Bentall, 1996). It is predicted that a model employing the predictors of depression, suspiciousness, and grandiosity will account for a significant amount of the variance in attributional style for negative and positive events. High suspiciousness and grandiosity scores are expected to predict greater use of external-personal attributions for negative events, while high depression and suspiciousness scores are expected to predict greater use of internal attributions for negative events. Results will be presented and discussed.

41. Differences Among High and Low-Functioning Patients In the Disappointment Domain of Work: Relationships and Implications
Authors: 1. Kristin Walker [University of Louisville]
2. Richard Lewine [University of Louisville]

Individuals diagnosed with severe and persistent mental illness are faced with chronic unemployment. Research has shown that patients are very discontented about not working, and three fourths convey a need for competitive and integrated employment (Rogers et al., 1991; Anthony and Blanch, 1987). The purpose of this study is to examine the disappointment domain of work in low-functioning and high-functioning patients. Based on the literature and clinical experience, we hypothesize that high-functioning patients will report work as a domain of disappointment more frequently than low-functioning patients. The sample, divided into groups based on their Global Assessment of Functioning Score (63= low-functioning; 96=high-functioning; mean age = 35.91), completed an interview assessing their views on subjective quality of life. A Pearson’s Chi-Square analysis was conducted to test differences between low and high-functioning patients in the frequency with which they reported the disappointment domain of work. No significant differences were found between low and high-functioning patients in the domain of work (p>.05). Regardless of current level of functioning, a majority of the patients in this sample reported that work is a source of disappointment for them. Clinicians need to be aware of this strong desire not simply just to work, but to have a job that meets each patient’s needs.

42. The relationship between stimulants and the induction/exacerbation of psychosis
Authors: 1. Molly Larson [Emory University]
2. Elaine Walker [Emory University]

Recreational and prescription stimulants are widely used in the US. Recent estimates suggest that the lifetime prevalence rate of recreational stimulant use is around 8.8% in respondents 12 years and older (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005). In addition, over the last decade there was a two-fold increase in stimulant prescriptions in children ages 3-18 and adults over 20 years (Toh, 2006; Robison, Sclar & Skaer, 2005). Accumulating evidence suggests that prescription and recreational stimulant use may be related to the induction and/or exacerbation of psychosis in a subgroup of individuals at risk (e.g., Curran, 2004; Thirthalli & Benegal, 2006). Given the widespread use of stimulants by youth and adults, it is important to critically examine the evidence for this relation and the potential implications for treatment and prevention. In particular, unanswered questions remain concerning the magnitude of the effect of stimulants, and whether the effect varies as a function of drug subtype, age, sex, and/or diagnostic status. This study reviewed the adult and child literature with the following objectives, 1) to determine the strength of the relation between psychosis and prescription and recreational use, and 2) to identify potential moderators of the relation.

43. Images featuring symbolic threat modulate ERP amplitude in recent-onset schizophrenia patients
Authors: 1. Peter Bachman [UCLA]
2. Cindy Yee [UCLA]
3. Kristopher Ian Mathis [UCLA]
4. Keith Nuechterlein [UCLA]
5. Kenneth Subotnik [UCLA]

A growing literature on emotion and motivated behavior in schizophrenia includes reports of both intact functioning and illness-related abnormalities. As a basis for further investigation of the defensive motivational system, and more specifically, how emotionally evocative stimuli are processed, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while recent-onset schizophrenia patients and healthy comparison subjects viewed affectively neutral and negative images. Unique to the present study, images’ symbolic representations of imminent threat were varied systematically in order to permit examination of whether particular categories of unpleasant images, ranging from high (e.g., attack, mutilation) to low threat (e.g., pollution, loss), elicit group-wise differences in ERP responses that are not apparent when only super-ordinate affect categories (i.e., negative, neutral) are considered. Initial analyses suggest that both patients and controls show strong modulation of ERP response amplitude by negative content category; however, group-wise differences in ERP response magnitude are subtle and do not appear to be associated with any one type of negative image content. Relationships between ERP measures and clinical variables, as well as implications for the influence of affect and arousal on more cognitively demanding tasks will also be considered.

44. Associated Course of Smoking and Psychiatric Symptoms During the Four Years Following First Admission for Psychosis
Authors: 1. Roman Kotov [Stony Brook University]
2. Lin Tung [Stony Brook University]
3. Evelyn Bromet [Stony Brook University]
4. Joseph Schwartz [Stony Brook University]

Cigarette smoking is two to four times more prevalent in psychiatric patients than in the general population. Different explanations of this association have been offered, including theories that posit a direct causal connection between cigarette use and psychopathology. Past research has examined cross-sectional relations between smoking and mental disorders in patient populations, but longitudinal associations have been evaluated only in community samples. The aim of this study was to examine the course of smoking and its relations to changes in symptoms of severe mental illnesses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder). We tested this question in a first-admission sample of 589 patients with psychosis followed for four years after the hospitalization. Specifically, we evaluated changes in psychotic (e.g., positive, negative, and disorganized) and mood (manic and depressive) symptoms. Fluctuations in cigarette consumption were associated only with changes in depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling suggested that a shared vulnerability rather than direct causation is the most likely explanation of the observed association.

45. Neurobiological Correlates of Changes in Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Structural MRI Study
Authors: 1. Shaun M. Eack [University of Pittsburgh]
2. Laura M. Geffert [University of Pittsburgh]
3. Konasale M. R. Prasad [University of Pittsburgh]
4. Matcheri S. Keshavan [Wayne State University]

Background: Social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been linked to abnormal brain function in the amygdala, insular, and orbitofrontal cortices. This study examined how morphometric changes in these regions are associated with changes in social cognition. Methods: Early course patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 33) participating in a clinical trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET; were assessed at baseline and after one year of treatment using structural MRI and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Results: Hierarchical regression models revealed that reductions in right orbitofrontal (ß = .57, p < .05) and insular cortex (ß = .64, p < .05) gray matter volumes were associated with decreases in emotion facilitation ability; and decreases in right amygdala (ß = .69, p < .05) and increases in left insula (ß = -.60, p < .01) volumes were associated with poorer management of emotion. Treatment by volume moderator analyses revealed that reductions in right orbitofrontal cortex volumes were related to decreases in emotional understanding only among individuals not receiving CET. Conclusions: Social-cognitive dysfunction among persons with schizophrenia may be the result of progressive morphometric changes in the amygdala, orbitofrontal, and insular cortices. CET may exert a protective effect on some of these changes to achieve its effects on social cognition.

46. Theory of Mind and Neurocognitive Predictors of Social Competence in Schizophrenia
Authors: 1. Tasha Nienow [UCLA]
2. Shahab Moradi [UCLA]
3. Keith Nuechterlein [UCLA]

Information processing theories of social competence have hypothesized that theory of mind, the ability to infer the mental states of others, contributes to effective social functioning in interpersonal interactions. However, few studies have directly examined the relationship between theory of mind and social competence. The primary aim of this study was to examine the strength and independence of theory of mind, executive functions, and basic neurocognitive processes (vigilance, visual processing) as predictors of social competence on a role-play task. Data was collected from 40 patients with schizophrenia and 19 community comparison participants. Theory of mind was assessed with two measures: Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test-Revised and the Joke Comprehension Test. Patients and community controls were found to have deficits on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and measures of auditory vigilance and abstraction. In both patient and community samples, early visual processing and theory of mind ability were significantly related to role-played social competence. In addition, performance on measures of auditory vigilance, inhibition of attention, and mental flexibility were related to social competence in the patient sample. Results suggest that theory of mind, executive functions, and basic neurocognitive processes, contribute to social competence in schizophrenia.

47. Disorganized Speech, Cognitive Control Deficits, and Emotion Traits in Schizophrenia
Authors: 1. Theresa Becker [University of Missouri-Columbia]
2. David Cicero [University of Missouri-Columbia]
3. John Kerns [University of Missouri-Columbia]

Disorganized speech in people with schizophrenia is associated with cognitive control deficits. However, cognitive control is a broad construct involving multiple components and it is unclear what specific aspect of cognitive control is associated with disorganized speech. For example, disorganized speech has been associated with both poor context processing and poor working memory. At the same time, disorganized speech has been found to increase when discussing emotionally negative topics. Disorganized schizotypy has been found to be associated with a combination of both poor cognitive control and emotion traits (e.g., increased ambivalence). However, it is unclear whether disorganized speech in schizophrenia is also associated with emotion traits and whether emotion traits predict increased disorganized speech for emotionally negative topics. The current research is examining relationships between disorganized speech, specific cognitive control deficits, and emotion traits in people with schizophrenia and in mood disorders. People with schizophrenia and people with mood disorders performed several cognitive control tasks involving context processing and working memory. In addition, emotion traits such as ambivalence were assessed. Participants also completed a modified version of the autobiographical memory test to examine disorganized speech when discussing emotionally neutral, negative, and positive topics.

48. Acculturation and Enculturation, Religiosity/Spirituality, and Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Authors: 1. Vamsi Koneru [University of Miami]
2. Amy Weisman [University of Miami]

Some evidence indicates that greater acculturation (acquisition of a new culture’s values and beliefs) to mainstream US culture may be associated with more severe symptoms of mental illness, including schizophrenia symptoms (Koneru & Weisman, 2006). Klonoff and Landrine (1999) have demonstrated that greater acculturation can also be associated with the deterioration of protective values such as strong religious beliefs. Research has not explored the association between enculturation (retention of original cultural norms and values), with symptoms of schizophrenia. Furthermore, the relationship between acculturation and enculturation with religiosity/spirituality has not been examined in schizophrenia. The present study explored the relationship between acculturation, enculturation, religiosity/spirituality and symptoms of schizophrenia in a sample of 17 Hispanic patients with schizophrenia (a larger sample is expected before SRP). Pilot results suggest interesting trends. For example greater enculturation (measured by the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (AMAS) was associated with fewer schizophrenia symptoms (measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) (r=-.40, p>.05) and stronger religious beliefs and practices (r=.638, p>.05) (measured by the Intrinsic/Extrinsic Religion Scale). In addition, greater acculturation (measured by AMAS) was associated with fewer religious beliefs and practices (r=-.45, p>.05). Trends suggest that, for Hispanic patients with schizophrenia, retention of culture-of-origin may be protective.

49. Anhedonia in Biological Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients is Associated with the COMT Val Allele
Authors: 1. Anna Docherty [Minneapolis VA Medical Center & University of Missouri-Columbia]
2. Scott Sponheim [Minneapolis VA Medical Center & University of Minnesota]

The Val108/158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been associated with schizophrenia. Researchers examining the relationship of schizotypy phenotypes to the COMT polymorphism in normative samples have found the high-activity (val) allele associated with positive and negative schizotypal domains as defined by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). We examined the Val108/158Met polymorphism for association with anhedonia (a construct central to negative schizotypy) in a group of individuals at presumed genetic liability for schizophrenia. Using the Chapman Scales we measured anhedonia and other schizotypal characteristics in biological relatives of schizophrenia patients and controls. Relatives of bipolar patients were also studied as a psychopathology control group. Only relatives of schizophrenia patients homozygous for the val allele were elevated in social and physical anhedonia. The same group was elevated on the constricted affect subscale of the SPQ. No other COMT genotypes were associated with elevated scores on Chapman or SPQ measures. Overall, relatives of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients had increased social anhedonia. Only relatives of schizophrenia patients had elevated physical anhedonia. Findings suggest that in a sample with genetic liability for schizophrenia, the Val108/158Met polymorphism of the COMT gene is associated with anhedonia and not positive or disorganized dimensions of schizotypy.

50. Indicators of Developmental Deviance in Negative Schizotypy
Authors: 1. Maureen Daly [UW-Madison]
2. Diane Gooding [UW-Madison]
3. Anthony Auger [UW-Madison]
4. Heather Jessen [UW-Madison]

Schizophrenia and spectrum patients have been studied in terms of indicators of developmental deviance. They display lower a-b ridge counts, lower 2D:4D digit ratios, and greater frequency of nailfold plexus visibility relative to controls. In the present study, we examined these biological variables in individuals at high (n=106) and low (n=230) risk for the later development of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders on the basis of revised Social Anhedonia scale scores. Results indicated a Group X Gender interaction for total a-b ridge counts, F(1, 292) = 4.67, p < .05, whereby males with social anhedonia had lower a-b ridge counts. The groups did not differ in terms of 2D:4D. The high-risk group had a significantly greater frequency of plexus visibility than the low-risk group, X2(1) = 4.86, p < .05. Left 2D:4D was significantly associated with plexus visibility (r = -.12) and total a-b ridge count (r = .14), p < .05, respectively. This study is the first to assess a variety of measures of developmental deviance in a psychometrically identified at-risk population.

51. Clinical Correlates of Sensory Gating in Cocaine-Dependent Patients and Healthy Controls
Authors: 1. Diane Gooding [UW-Madison]
2. Scott Burroughs [Wayne State University]
3. Oleg Korzyukov [Wayne State University]
4. Nash Boutros [Wayne State University]

The aim of the study was to investigate the personality and clinical correlates of sensory gating. We administered an auditory paired-click paradigm to 23 cocaine-dependent patients and 38 healthy controls and measured three components of mid-latency auditory evoked responses (MLAERS) namely, the P50, N100, and P200. Sensory gating was defined as the ratio of the S2 amplitude to the S1 amplitude. The clinical measures included four Chapman psychosis-proneness scales, the Cocaine Experience Questionnaire (CEQ), and the Wender Utah Rating Scale. The main results revealed moderate correlations between psychosis proneness as measured by the Chapman scales and the ERP parameters. Higher scores on the revised Social Anhedonia Scale were associated with a poorer ability to filter out incoming irrelevant sensory stimuli in the pre-attentive stage (approx. 50 msec post-stimulus) of information processing. Higher scores on the Perceptual Aberration Scale were associated with CNS decreased inhibitory capacity in the later MLAERS (N100 and P200). Scores on the Magical Ideation Scale as well as the Physical Anhedonia Scale were also associated with information processing, as indexed by the P200 component. These findings suggest that different aspects of psychosis-proneness are related to different phases of sensory gating.

52. Functional Genetic Variants and Cognitive Performance in Adolescents with Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Adult Schizophrenia Patients
Authors: 1. Hanan Trotman [Emory University]
2. Michelle Esterberg [Emory University]
3. Elaine Walker [Emory University]

Recent results from our lab and other research groups suggest that cognitive impairments may be a vulnerability marker in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (Aleman et al., 2000; Cadenhead et al., 1999; Trotman et al., 2006). Evidence has accumulated suggesting that cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are related to genetic factors, particularly the COMT gene. The COMT gene has two alleles: Val and Met. The Val allele is thought to be related to increased risk for schizophrenia (Egan et al., 2001). Individuals homozygous for the Val allele demonstrate the greatest cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (Bruder et al., 2005; Galderisi et al., 2005) and schizotypal (Minzenberg et al., 2006) participants. Further evidence shows that cognitive impairment in schizophrenia patients improves following antipsychotic treatment (Bilder et al., 2002; Mishara & Goldberg, 2004). Differential improvement has also been shown for the various COMT polymorphisms (i.e., different allelic variations) (Weickert et al., 2004). One study to date investigated COMT genotype variation in a homogenous sample of adults with schizotypal personality disorder (Minzenberg et al., 2006). Thus effects of sex, ethnicity, and medication could not be investigated. The current study will investigate cognitive function and allelic variation in the COMT genes of adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder and adults with schizophrenia. Further, the effect of antipsychotic medication in relation to cognitive impairment and genotype variation will be examined in these groups. In line with findings of sex differences in cognitive impairment in schizophrenia patients (Goldstein et al., 1998), and controversial findings of sex differences in COMT alleles (O’hara et al., 2006), sex will be examined as a moderating variable. Two comparison groups will be included, a normal control group and individuals diagnosed with other personality disorders.

53. An Examination of the Experience of Caring for a Child or Adolescent with a Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorder: Looking at Caregivers’ Burden, Barriers, Knowledge, Needs, and Support
Authors: 1. Jane Knock [University of Hawaii at Manoa]
2. Elizabeth Jacobs [University of Hawaii at Manoa]
3. Jaime Chang [University of Hawaii at Manoa]
4. Mary Delaveaga [University of Hawaii at Manoa]
5. Jason Schiffman [University of Hawaii at Manoa]

The experience of caregivers of youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is relatively unexplored. This study uses a mixed-methods design with both qualitative and quantitative elements to examine the experiences of caregivers of youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Primary caregivers of youth with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder were recruited to participate in the study. Each participant was administered both a semi-structured interview as well as several objective measures. Associated factors that affect these caregivers, such as caregivers’ burden, barriers to receiving care, knowledge of the patient’s disorder, needs for patient and caregiver, and social support were examined. Data analysis will consist of both thematic analysis of qualitative data obtained, as well as quantitative analyses. It is hypothesized that caregivers of youth with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder will report difficulties resulting from their child’s mental health condition. This study will describe these difficulties and provide information about caregivers’ experiences of burden, barriers to receiving care, knowledge of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, needs for services, and social support.

54. Preliminary Multi-Family Support Group for Families of Youth with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
Authors: 1. Jason Schiffman [University of Hawaii at Manoa]
2. Thomas Tsuji [University of Hawaii at Manoa]
3. Jane Knock [University of Hawaii at Manoa]
4. Justin Maeda [University of Hawaii at Manoa]
5. Nikki Armstrong [University of Hawaii at Manoa]

Schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders debilitates not only the client’s life, but also that of the family. This may be particularly true of families of a child or adolescent with a spectrum disorder. Family members sometimes lack psychoeducation, parenting skills, and coping strategies that might help alleviate some of the psychosocial and familial costs of the disorder. Multifamily groups have a relatively long history of effectiveness for families of an adult with schizophrenia. To date, however, research on the effects of family group interventions with families of youth with schizophrenia spectrum disorders has been limited. To address this gap in the literature the effectiveness of a small preliminary group (N=3) was assessed over a 14 week span using a multiple baseline design. The content of the group included the following modules: psychoeducation, crisis and stress management, communication skills training, problem solving skills, medication adherence, and open time for family members to share their experiences. These parameters were measured with a 21-item likert (0-10) scale. Using a multiple baseline approach for the three caregivers, with phase changes at the conclusion of each module, data suggest improvement across domains, with improvement in specific domains tending to occur at the predicted phase change.

55. Social Anhedonia and Facets of Emotional Experience
Authors: 1. Elizabeth Martin [University of Missouri-Columbia]
2. Anna Docherty [University of Missouri-Columbia]
3. John Kerns [University of Missouri-Columbia]

This study examined facets of emotional experience in people with elevated social anhedonia (n = 34) and control participants (n = 30). In an event description task, people with elevated social anhedonia provided less emotional content when describing positive (but not negative) situations. In addition, in 3 different assessments of emotional experience (including naturalistic and lab contexts as well as previous and current experiences) social anhedonia was associated with decreased intensity (but not frequency) of positive affect. The decrease was for both high and low arousal emotions and for both social and nonsocial situations. In addition, social anhedonia was associated with increased frequency (but not intensity) of negative affect, especially for social situations. In contrast, for reactions to controlled lab stimuli (picture viewing), social anhedonia was not associated with negative affect. Overall, these results suggest that people with elevated social anhedonia might experience a generalized decrease in positive affect intensity, whereas they may experience more frequent negative affect primarily during interpersonal interactions.

56. Childhood Trauma and Psychotic-like Symptoms Among Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis
Authors: 1. Judy Thompson [Columbia University]
2. Meredith Kelly [Columbia University]
3. David Printz [Columbia University]
4. David Kimhy [Columbia University]
5. Shamir Khan [Columbia University]
6. Julie Walsh [Columbia University]
7. Jill Harkavy-Friedman [Columbia University]
8. Dolores Malaspina [New York University]
9. Cheryl Corcoran [Columbia University]

Population-based and clinical-sample studies suggest that childhood trauma is associated with later psychosis, and it has been proposed that early trauma may play a causal role in the development of psychotic illness. The current study examined whether childhood trauma was associated with the severity of symptoms experienced by individuals who appear to be prodromal to psychotic illness. Thirty participants, ages 13-25, who met prodromal research criteria were assessed with the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). The ETI probes for experiences of varying degrees of severity within the domains of general trauma and physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. When including all events assessed by the ETI, 77% of the sample reported a history of physical punishment or abuse, 67% endorsed childhood emotional abuse, and 27% reported childhood sexual abuse. Total trauma scores were associated with positive and disorganized symptoms (all rs>.43). Specifically, physical abuse was associated with positive and disorganized symptoms, emotional abuse was related to disorganized symptoms, and sexual abuse (dichotomized) was related to positive symptoms (X2=5.87). These associations were generally stronger for the ethnic minority (n=17) compared to Caucasian participants (n=13). Implications of findings and suggestions for future work will be discussed.

57. Factors Correlated with Suicidal Ideation in Psychosis
Authors: 1. Karen Eisenmenger [University of Louisville]
2. Brooke Shriner [University of Louisville]
3. Richard Lewine [University of Louisville]

Psychotic patients often feel unable to accomplish the career aspirations they held before the onset of their illness. Disappointment in their future and grief over lost dreams could lead to depression and suicidal ideation. In our Illness Impact study, we examined possible factors that may inhibit adjustment to mental illness by administering questionnaires to ninety-nine psychotic patients. Bivariate correlations were performed comparing the total Beck Suicide Scale (BSS) score of each participant to the participants’ sex, race, social class of origin, perceived parental job expectations, the discrepancy between job expected and achieved, perceived parental criticism, perceived parental expectation, and level of disappointment in major life domains. Of these factors, only perceived parental criticism (r =.241, p < .05) and level of disappointment (r =.226, p <.05) reached significance. Level of disappointment was significantly correlated with seven items on the BSS, while perceived parental criticism was significantly correlated with five. Items that correlate with both factors or differ between the two will be analyzed and discussed in detail on our poster.

58. Neuropsychological Profiles in a Sample Prodromal for Psychosis
Authors: 1. Kristen A. Woodberry [Harvard University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences]
2. Anthony J. Giuliano [Massachusetts Mental Health Center Public Psychiatry Division of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School]
3. Larry J. Seidman [Massachusetts Mental Health Center Public Psychiatry Division of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School]

Premorbid neuropsychological (NP) impairments are often cited in support of neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia (SCZ), yet very little is known about the developmental course and heterogeneity of these impairments in relation to psychosis onset. A sample of over 70 putatively prodromal youth (age 11-25) is compared to a demographically-matched control sample to explore NP profile heterogeneity. Prodromal youth are participants in the Portland Identification and Early Referral (PIER) program (NIMH RO1 MH065367, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, William McFarlane, PI) and met prodromal diagnostic criteria based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms. Profile analysis is used to compare NP profiles of these two groups based on eight cognitive domains: verbal and nonverbal IQ, verbal and visual sustained attention and working memory, executive functions, learning and memory, motor functioning, and olfactory functioning. Distributions of clinical profile subtypes (Seidman, 1993) are also compared between the prodromal and control participants. Finally, we report on the relationship of NP profile subtypes to premorbid functioning and academic achievement. We conclude by discussing implications for neurodevelopmental models and early intervention in schizophrenia.

59. Pupillary Reactions and Socioemotional Behavior in Schizotypy
Authors: 1. Linda Brewer [Central Michigan University]
2. Stuart Quirk [Central Michigan University]
3. Greg Siegle [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine]
4. Christie VanOchten [Central Michigan University]

Schizotypy is marked by impaired socioemotional functioning yet there are indications schizotypal individuals are more aware of their emotional reactions than comparison groups (Kerns, 2005). It may be that increased self-focus contributes to impaired interpersonal functioning in schizotypy. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether schizotypal individuals have a heightened sensitivity to their psychophysiological emotional reactions as measured via pupillary reactivity and corresponding arousal reports to affective pictures. Further we sought to determine if this hypothesized hypersensitivity is associated with poorer social functioning. Pupillary reactions were recorded for seventy four participants who viewed and rated their emotional reactions to 35 evocative pictures. Participants completed questionnaires and were videotaped while participating in an emotionally intrusive interview. Participants demonstrated a significant correspondence between pupillary reactivity and arousal reports. This correspondence was not reliably related to schizotypy symptoms but was associated with greater behavioral activation reports. High schizotypy group members reported greater trait emotional sensitivity and less emotional clarity. As expected, interviewers rated their interactions with schizotypal individuals more negatively. Results support the use of the pupil dilation-reported arousal correspondence index as a potential measure of emotional attunement.

60. Is schizotypy associated with diminished anticipatory pleasure?
Authors: 1. Michael Hoerger [Central Michigan University]
2. Stuart Quirk [Central Michigan University]
3. Jennifer Nerbonne [Central Michigan University]
4. Felix Smith [Central Michigan University]

Social withdrawal and avoidance are prominent features of schizophrenia and schizotypy yet evidence for impaired emotional reactivity and diminished hedonic capacity in those with schizophrenia-spectrum pathology has been equivocal. It may be that schizotypic individuals have a normative hedonic capacity but anticipate less intense emotional reactions to emotionally-evocative events. To evaluate this hypothesis, participants predicted their emotional reactions to two positive film clips and two negative affective stimuli (a film clip and an intrusive interview) and later reported on their actual reactions to the same stimuli. A large pool of undergraduates (N = 701) were screened using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire to identify a high-schioztypy group (n = 41) and a comparison group (n = 55). Predicted and actual changes in positive and negative affect reports were generally similar for the high-schizotypy and comparison groups. One notable exception was that those in the high-schizotypy group reported greater predicted (d = 0.56) and actual (d = 0.65) reductions in negative affect for the positive stimuli than did the comparison group. The hypothesis that schizotypy is associated with a deficit in predicted emotional reactions was unsupported.

61. Implications of the Dopamine Imbalance Hypothesis for Schizotypy
Authors: 1. Nate Smith [SUNY Binghamton]
2. Mark F. Lenzenweger [SUNY Binghamton]

The dopamine imbalance hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates that decreased extracellular tonic D1 activity leads to a compensatory up-regulation among D2 receptors in the mid-brain (Grace, 1991). This study sought to examine how further increasing D2 activity would affect schizotypic performance in Spatial Working Memory (SWM), which is largely influenced by the D1 and D2 interplay (Gibbs & D’Esposito, 2005). In addition to the Maher Line Drawing (MLD) and Finger Tapping (FT) tasks, SWM performance for schizotypes and normal controls was collected across four waves. Between wave 1 and wave 2, subjects participated in a pseudo-gambling task with known D2 activating properties (Elliott, Friston, & Dolan, 2000). To the degree that a dopamine imbalance exists within schizotypic pathophysiology, it was expected that schizotypic (SWM) performance would further erode relative to normal controls, whereas (MLD) and (FT), which would be less affected by an imbalance, would remain stable across the four waves. Using HLM to analyze performance across the four wave points, group membership (schizotype or normal control) predicts slope (t(45)= -2.072, p = .022 (one-tailed), R = .295) with schizotypic performance eroding overtime after the dopamine manipulation. Consistent with the dopamine imbalance hypothesis, the data indicate that the dopamine manipulation may have differentially affected schizotypic (SWM) performance but not (MLD) or (FT).

62. Expectancy-Induced Cognitive Reinterpretation: Recruiting Prefrontal and Cingulate Control Over Stress-Responsive Appraisal Systems
Authors: 1. Kevin Bickart [Boston University School of Medicine]
2. Colin Sauder [Boston VA Healthcare System, National Center for PTSD]
3. Dae-Shik Kim [Center for Biomedical Imaging]
4. Katherine Putnam [Boston VA Healthcare System, National Center for PTSD; Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine]

Findings suggest that by effectively engaging cognitive control strategies, individuals may be able to protect themselves from stress-induced pathology [e.g. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), hippocampal degeneration, and cardiovascular disease] by recruiting neural executive systems to modulate overactive or unmanaged stress responses. Fourteen healthy, adult females were induced to either believe that they had control, without actually having control, or that they did not have control over the duration of stressful images. Utilizing functional MRI (fMRI), prefrontal (dorsolateral DLPFC) and cingulate (dorsal anterior dACC) regions displayed activation when participants believed they had control, while stress-responsive appraisal regions, such as the amygdala, displayed deactivation. These findings suggest that cognitively controllable executive systems were recruited by participants’ beliefs in the expected efficacy of the task. Through direct and indirect projections encoding expectancy biases, stress-responsive appraisal systems were deactivated and emotion regulation was achieved. These findings can be translated to the clinical arena where they may be used in the development of cognitive/behavioral therapies for stress-induced psychopathology and somatic illness. Implications regarding the doctor-patient relationship point towards the development of an environment supporting hope, optimism, and positive expectancy in an effort to reduce the deleterious effects of anxiety and mood dysregulation in patients.

63. Preliminary Validation of a World Wide Web-Based Neurocognitive Assessment Battery
Authors: 1. Igor Malinovsky [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey]
2. Robert Paul [University of Missouri-St. Louis]
3. Leanne Williams [Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital & University of Sydney]
4. Nicholas Cooper [Brain Resource Company]
5. Evian Gordon [Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital & University of Sydney and Brain Resource Company]
6. Steven Silverstein [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey]

Assessment of neurocognitive functioning is a critical task in many clinical settings. We report on descriptive and validation data of a new, World Wide Web-based, comprehensive battery of neurocognitive functioning, WebNeuroTM, that can be used in both applied and research contexts. This is a two-stage project. At stage one, 50 healthy control subjects completed both WebNeuroTM, and an established non-internet-based computerized cognitive assessment battery, IntegNeuroTM, that uses a touchscreen platform. Results indicated comparability across the two batteries, in terms of critical single test scores, factor analysis derived indices, overall performance scores, and sex differences. These results support the validity of WebNeuroTM as a neurocognitive assessment measure in healthy control subjects. Stage two of the project was initiated in January of 2007, and we are currently collecting preliminary validity data on samples of psychiatric patients meeting criteria for DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder I, or major depressive disorder (Ns as of June 1, 2007 = 25,13,and 12, respectively). Preliminary findings on enlarged samples (as of October 2007), will be presented, as will comparisons to healthy controls. Advantages of the use of web-based neurocognitive assessment will also be discussed.

64. Forward and Backward Visual Masking in Schizotypy: Evidence for Impairment in the Magnocellular System
Authors: 1. Michal Mor [Academic College of Tel-Aviv Yaffo]
2. Dafna Wolff [Academic College of Tel-Aviv Yaffo]
3. Yuri Rassovsky [UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior]

Schizophrenic patients consistently demonstrate performance deficits on visual masking procedures. Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is hypothesized to be part of the schizophrenia spectrum. The goal of this study was to examine visual masking performance in individuals with high and low scores on a standard measure of SPD. To this end, we administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire–Brief (SPQ-B) to 91 undergraduates. All participants completed three computerized visual masking tasks designed to assess different aspect of early visual processing. The tasks included: 1) locating a target; 2) identifying a target with a high energy mask; and 3) a paracontrast/metacontrast procedure with non-overlapping target and mask. A staircase method was used to ensure that unmasked target identification was equivalent across subjects. The task that best discriminated between individuals high in schizotypy (n=30) and those who were low in schizotypy (n=26) was the backward masking component of the location condition. These results offer further support to the theory suggesting that visual masking procedures may be indicators of vulnerability to schizophrenia. The pattern of findings (group differences on backward vs. forward masking in the location condition) is consistent with the growing body of literature implicating the magnocellular visual system in these performance deficits.

65. Visual Perception in Bipolar Disorder
Authors: 1. Brian O'Donnell [Indiana University]
2. Colleen Brenner [Indiana University]
3. John Nurnberger [Indiana University School of Medicine]
4. Anantha Shekhar [Indiana University School of Medicine]
5. Willam Hetrick [Indiana University]

Bipolar disorder is associated with alterations in mood and cognition. The integrity of sensory systems in this disorder and possible changes with phase of illness are less well characterized. Visual perception was evaluated in 23 bipolar subjects in a euthymic state, 28 subjects during an acute episode (hypomanic, manic, mixed, or depressed) and 55 healthy control subjects. Contrast sensitivity for static and moving gratings, form discrimination and dot motion discrimination were tested. An ANOVA on contrast sensitivity measures showed a main effect of group (p < .05) and follow up tests revealed that acute, but not euthymic subjects, were impaired compare to control subjects. Motion coherence thresholds were impaired for both the euthymic (p < .001) and acute patients (p < .02). Performance of unmedicated patients (N = 8) did not differ from medicated patients on any measure. During an acute episode of bipolar disorder, subjects exhibit deficits in contrast sensitivity as well as disturbances in motion perception, suggestive of pervasive impairment of visual processing. Euthymic subjects only show impairments for perception of coherent dot motion, suggestive of a more circumscribed disturbance of cortical pathways specialized for analysis of motion properties.

66. Measuring Sleep Disturbances in Psychopathology
Authors: 1. Erin Koffel [University of Iowa]
2. David Watson [University of Iowa]

Introduction: Patients with psychological disorders often report sleep disturbances. A review of the literature reveals a need for a comprehensive, empirically created instrument to measure these disturbances. This study used factor analysis to create such a measure. Methods: A comprehensive item pool containing 268 items was administered to 298 college students (54 men, 243 women, 1 unreported; mean age 19). Participants also completed measures of psychopathology (e.g., IDAS, MAST, PCL-C) and sleep disturbances (e.g., PSQI, WHIIRS). Results: Principal factor analysis with varimax rotation yielded 15 preliminary scales, including Insomnia, Excessive Sleep, and Nightmares. The scales had reasonable internal consistency (majority of coefficient alphas .78 or higher) and correlated significantly with the PSQI. Significant correlations were found between the PCL-C and Nightmares (r = .49), IDAS General Depression and Insomnia (r = .56) and IDAS Panic and Nighttime Anxiety (r = .32). Conclusion: Preliminary analyses suggest that the 15 scales are homogenous and distinct. The scales are significantly correlated with measures of sleep disturbance and show differential relations with psychological disorders. In the next phase, these scales will be validated in samples of patients with sleep disorders and psychiatric patients.

Authors: 1. Crystal Edler, M.A. [University of Iowa]
2. Annette M. Swain, Ph.D. [University of California, Los Angeles]
3. Michael W. O'Hara, Ph.D. [University of Iowa]
4. Arnold E. Andersen, M.D. [University of Iowa]
5. Kelsie T. Forbush, M.A. [University of Iowa]

Approximately 50 percent of women with bulimia nervosa achieve remission following treatment. While several studies have examined predictors of bulimic symptom remission in response to treatment, results have been mixed. In particular, several studies have shown that the presence of comorbid personality disorders predicts poor treatment response; however, other studies suggest that personality disorders do not impact treatment. Previous inconclusive results may reflect the heterogeneity and comorbidity associated with personality disorder diagnoses, and psychotherapy outcome research should include validated measures of well-defined personality traits. The purpose of this study was to examine several potential prognostic indicators of treatment response and vulnerability to short-term relapse among women with bulimic symptoms. Women (N=54) were recruited from three outpatient clinics prior to the onset of short-term psychotherapy. Pretreatment, post-treatment, and two- and five-month follow-up assessments of eating pathology and psychopathology were conducted. Personality was assessed at baseline using the Schedule of Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality. Borderline personality disorder, disinhibition, manipulativeness, aggression, and negative temperament at pretreatment significantly discriminated between remitted, improved, and non-improved participants at post-treatment. Disinhibition and aggression were significantly associated with relapse rates at follow-up. Identifying patient predictors of remission and relapse may lead to more effective treatments for bulimic symptoms.

68. Neuropsychological Predictors of Aggression in Acute Psychiatric Inpatients
Authors: 1. Mark Serper [Hofstra University]
2. Danielle Beech [Hofstra University]
3. Philip Harvey [Mt. Sinai Medical Center]
4. Charles Dill [Hofstra University]
5. Brady Berman [Hofstra University]

Neuropsychological assessment of executive dysfunction may identify psychiatric patients who may be at high risk for aggressive behavior because impairment of the prefrontal cortex has been indicated as a possible anatomical correlate of aggression. No consensus, however, has been reached on the extent executive dysfunction contributes to the formation of psychopathology and to aggressive behavior in psychiatric inpatients. We hypothesized a mediating model wherein patients’ executive functioning deficits contribute to the formation of psychopathological symptoms, which then underlies aggressive behavior. To test this model, we examined the relationship between executive functioning, psychiatric symptomatology and aggressive behavior in eighty-five (N=85)psychiatric inpatients presenting over an acute hospital admission using structure equation modeling techniques. The results revealed that patients’ executive function impairment significantly predicted the formation of positive and negative symptoms, which in turn significantly contributed to the manifestation of aggressive behavior. Executive dysfunction also directly predicted inpatient aggressive behavior. Combining the indirect and direct effects, 59% of our inpatient aggression measure factor variance was accounted for by our measures of executive dysfunction and clinical symptom severity. These findings suggest that neurocognitive deficits underlie both psychiatric symptom formation and aggression. Patients with executive dysfunction may not possess the behavioral inhibition skills needed to cope with the presence of symptoms and other stressful events that accompany acute psychosis and hospitalization that may result, consequently, in increased manifestations of aggressive behavior.

69. Effects of Acute Cortisol Administration on Visual Memory Encoding: An event-related fMRI investigation
Authors: 1. Diana I. Simeonova [Emory University ]
2. Stephan B. Hamann [Emory University ]
3. Kevin D. Tessner [Emory University ]
4. Vijay A. Mittal [Emory University ]
5. Elaine F. Walker [Emory University ]

Cortisol release in response to stress has been shown to have negative effects on memory. However, there is also research evidence indicating that cortisol administration can enhance memory performance at lower doses. The recent development of event-related fMRI methods allows for examination of trial-by-trail differences in neural activity during encoding and of the consequences of these differences for later remembering. In event-related study designs, separate activations are recorded for each stimulus. Based on the outcome of a later test for memory, activations can be measured separately for stimuli encoded successfully or unsuccessfully. We administered cortisol and assessed the neural correlates of visual memory performance and task-related brain activity in healthy males. A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, within-subject crossover design was used in which 14 subjects were asked to recall visual stimuli after either cortisol or placebo administration. The purpose of this study is to use event-related fMRI to compare the memory performance for visual stimuli between cortisol and placebo conditions. The findings of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the neural correlates of visual memory performance and factors influencing the subsequent memory for visual stimuli.

70. Structure and Content of Trait Dependency
Authors: 1. Theresa A. Morgan [University of Iowa]
2. Lee Anna Clark [University of Iowa]

Dependency is implicated in a number of psychological disorders, encompassing both Axis I and II pathologies (see Bornstein, 1993). However, it remains only loosely defined in both research and clinical settings, and little is known about the construct independent of dominant trait theories. Most importantly, specific dependency behaviors have yet to be identified clearly. A large (N = 519) undergraduate sample completed a battery of 14 dependency scales and subscales; a subset of that group (n=326) completed the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2 (SNAP-2; Clark et al., in press) a broad measure of personality pathology, and an overlapping subset completed a report on specific dependency behaviors. A factor analysis of the self-report scales revealed a clear, two-factor, hierarchical structure to dependency-related traits, suggesting both ‘internal’ (e.g., self-critical) and ‘external’ (e.g., emotional neediness) components. A third factor, unrelated to the other two, reflected detachment. Analysis of the behavioral data revealed specific behaviors that could be identified as either characteristic or not characteristic of dependency. Taken together, these data suggest a clear factor structure to dependency that encompasses a small set of discrete behavioral components.

71. Clinical Utility of DSM-IV and Alternative Dimensional Models of Personality Disorder
Authors: 1. Jennifer Ruth Lowe [University of Kentucky]
2. Thomas A. Widiger, Ph.D. [University of Kentucky]

Clinical utility, or the usefulness of a diagnostic system in clinical practice, has been identified as a potential limitation of alternative dimensional models of personality disorder, such as the five-factor model (FFM; McCrae & Costa, 1990), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI; Cloninger, 2000), the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen & Waller, 1987), and the Shedler & Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200; Shedler & Westen, 1998). Both proponents of and opponents to dimensional models of personality disorder have suggested that their clinical utility be assessed in preparation for DSM-V (e.g., Rounsaville et al., 2002; First et al., 2002; Verheul, 2005; First, 2005). Samuel & Widiger (2006) found the FFM to have significantly greater clinical utility than the existing diagnostic categories. In the current study, 1572 practicing psychologists were asked to describe one of three cases using the DSM-IV and the constructs of one of four alternative dimensional models (FFM, TCI, MPQ, SWAP). Clinicians then rated each model on six aspects of clinical utility. Results indicate that clinicians find dimensional models to be higher in clinical utility than the DSM-IV on five of the six aspects of clinical utility, but not significantly different from each other. Implications of these findings are discussed.

72. Selective Attention Anomalies in Psychopathy Reflect the Interaction of the PCL: SV Factors.
Authors: 1. Joshua Zeier [University of Wisconsin-Madison]
2. Joseph Newman [University of Wisconsin-Madison]

Evidence that psychopathic individuals are insensitive to motivationally neutral cues, as well as affectively or motivationally significant information, has been found using modified Stroop procedures in which the incongruent element of the display is spatially separated from the attended dimension. Here, 127 Caucasian male offenders completed a Stroop-like task, both to evaluate the generalizability of this finding to psychopathy as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV; Hart et al., 1995) and to examine its relationship to the interpersonal-affective and social deviance factors of the PCL: SV. As predicted, psychopathic offenders with low levels of trait anxiety (Welsh Anxiety Scale; Welsh, 1956) were significantly less affected by spatially separated incongruent information than controls. Analysis of the PCL: SV factors revealed a significant interaction, such that this insensitivity related specifically to participants scoring high on both psychopathy factors. Implications for factor-based models of psychopathy are discussed.

73. Oddity: The Third Higher Order Factor of Psychopathology
Authors: 1. Michael Chmielewski [University of Iowa]
2. David Watson [University of Iowa]

Recently a two-factor model of psychopathology that includes an Internalizing factor (containing disorders high in negative affectivity, such as the mood and anxiety disorders) and an Externalizing factor (containing disorders high in disinhibition and impulsivity, such as antisocial personality disorder and the substance use disorders) has received broad support. However, the model is incomplete as it does not include disorders or symptoms such as schizotypy, dissociative tendencies, and obsessive compulsive disorder. It is our belief that these constructs constitute a third major factor of psychopathology, the “Oddity” factor. A dimensional, symptom based analysis could circumvent previous problems (such as heterogeneity and low prevalence rates) that have lead to their exclusion from the current model and help facilitate a comprehensive unified model of psychopathology. The current ongoing study is designed to examine the relationship between these symptoms (as well as other potential markers of the oddity domain) and symptoms from the internalizing and externalizing disorders. Data have been collected from more than 250 clinical patients who have completed multiple self-report measures of the purported symptoms of the oddity domain as well as symptoms from the internalizing and externalizing domains. Results from correlational analyses and factor analyses will be reported.

74. Relations between oddity domains and the constructs of the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality
Authors: 1. Deborah Stringer [University of Iowa]
2. Lee Anna Clark [University of Iowa]

A large set of self-report items tapping oddity (i.e., domains empirically and phenomenologically related to psychosis) were administered to a college student sample. Of these participants, 321 also completed the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1993) as a follow-up. The content areas of the 199-item pool included magical thinking, perceptual oddities, ideas of reference, dissociation (including sleep-related states), certain obsessive-compulsive symptoms, openness to experience, odd appearance, social anhedonia, and pathological impulses. Four correlated factors were extracted from the oddity items: Magical thinking/perceptual oddity, distractibility, checking, and intellectual curiosity (an aspect of openness to experience). When unit-weighted scales were constructed using items loading .40 and higher onto each factor, and factor-analyzed with the SNAP scales, magical thinking/perceptual oddity, distractibility, and checking all marked a negative temperament factor, whereas openness to experience was a marker of a positive temperament factor. This study provides preliminary evidence that—at least in normal populations—the oddity domain is a facet of negative affectivity rather than a separate spectrum of psychopathology. However, this needs to be confirmed in a patient population, in which there may be better differentiation of this aspect of psychopathology.

75. The Correspondence Between the Lab and Life: The Case of Impulsivity
Authors: 1. Drew J. Miller [Purdue University]
2. Donald R. Lynam [Purdue University]
3. Gregory Smith [University of Kentucky]

The construct of impulsivity is present in multiple criteria sets within the DSM, represented in every general measure of personality, and sits as the centerpiece in multiple theories of deviance. Typically, impulsivity has been assessed using either self-report questionnaires or laboratory tasks. Experience sampling methodology provides an additional possible assessment domain. The current study uses this methodology to explore the correspondence between impulsivity measured via laboratory task, and impulsive behavior in the daily lives of 40 undergraduates. Working from a multidimensional model of impulsivity, several laboratory tasks were administered to participants in Phase 1; one task tapped sensation seeking, whereas the other was thought to assess premeditation . In Phase 2, participants carried PDAs for one week. They were signaled randomly eight times daily. At each cue, participants answered questions concerning their affect, context, and behavior. Questions about behavior were designed according to the same multidimensional model of impulsivity used to select the laboratory tasks. Analyses examine the general and specific convergence between laboratory indices of impulsivity and impulsive behavior in daily life. Results are discussed in the context of the multidimensional model and in the context of their implications for assessing impulsivity.

76. Use of the Easy Form of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-EZ) in Treatment-Seeking and Community Adolescents
Authors: 1. Shabnam Javdani [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]
2. Edelyn Verona [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]

The Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen, 1982) is a widely used personality assessment instrument which provides information on both lower and higher order personality dimensions. To date, little attention has been paid to validating self-report personality measures in adolescents, even though these measures are administered to youth (e.g., Krueger, Caspi, Moffitt, Silva, McGee, 1996). Moreover, such an endeavor could enhance our understanding of latent structure of personality across critical periods of development. To that end, a revised version of the MPQ-Brief Form (Patrick, Curtin, & Tellegen, 2001) has been developed with all items reworded to contain easier language (MPQ-EZ). The current study presents findings on the validity of the MPQ-EZ with an adolescent sample (12-17 years old) which includes treatment-seeking and non-treatment seeking youth. In particular, data will be presented on a) the reliability of the primary and higher order scales of the MPQ-EZ, b) the higher order factor structure of the MPQ-EZ, and c) the relationship between MPQ-EZ dimensions and other psychological, personality, and social measures. Preliminary factor analysis revealed a four factor structure suggestive of positive emotionality, negative emotionality, conscientiousness, and risk taking.

77. Factor Analytic Structure of Antisocial Behavior
Authors: 1. Janeen DeMarte [Michigan State University]
2. S. Alexandra Burt [Michigan State University]

Antisocial behavior (ASB) is often conceptualized as a unitary construct. However, researchers are beginning to identify meaningful sub-groups within ASB. There is growing evidence for distinct aggressive (AGG: physical attack) and non-aggressive rule breaking (RB: stealing) forms of ASB, which are more common in males. A third possible sub-type, termed social aggression (SA), minimizes this gender gap. SA involves aggressive behavior that uses social relationships as the vehicle of harm (e.g., gossiping). No study has examined whether these three dimensions are distinct sub-types of ASB. Therefore, the current study aimed to do just this, while taking gender into account. A group of 309 college students were administered self-report questionnaires measuring all three forms of ASB. Using Structural Equation Modeling, a series of five multiple group confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the factorial structure of ASB across gender. The results suggested that the three-factor structure was the best fitting model, providing further evidence that there are three distinct sub-groups within ASB. Further, this factor structure did not vary by gender, suggesting that the sub-types are meaningfully-distinct forms of ASB for both men and women. This study enhances our understanding of the heterogeneity within ASB, which has important clinical implications.

78. Objective versus subjective stress in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia
Authors: 1. Zainab Delawalla [Washington University Department of Psychology]
2. John Csernansky [Washington University Department of Psychiatry]
3. Deanna Barch [Washington University Department of Psychology]

The role of stress in schizophrenia is indisputable. Many studies have investigated the effect of life events on the etiology and course of schizophrenia but results have been mixed. Some studies report significantly more life events in the weeks or months preceding onset or relapse. However, others find no differences in the number of life events experienced by individuals with schizophrenia compared to controls. Another line of research suggests that although the number of life events may not differ among patients and controls, patients may show increased sensitivity to such events. There are also indications of impairments in the biological mechanism for coping with stress in individuals with schizophrenia, as well in individuals at high-risk for schizophrenia. This study examined the role of objective versus subjective experiences of life events in individuals at genetic high-risk for schizophrenia and controls. All participants filled out a life-events questionnaire noting the nature of the event as well as their subjective rating of the severity of the stressor. Data analysis will focus on the elucidating differences in the reaction to similar stressors experienced by high-risk individuals versus controls as well the relationship between stress reactivity and sub-clinical schizotypal symptoms.

79. Psychopathy and antisocial behavior in adolescents: A prospective longitudinal follow-up
Authors: 1. Michael Vitacco [Mendota Mental Health Institute]
2. Craig Neumann [University of North Texas]
3. Michael Caldwell [Mendota Mental Health Institute]
4. Gregory Van Rybroek [Mendota Mental Health Institute]

The downward extension of psychopathy to adolescents is controversial as there has been a paucity of studies focusing on the predictive validity of psychopathic traits. This study presents data on 128 ethnically diverse male offenders (M age = 15.28, SD =1.20) incarcerated in a maximum-security facility for serious and chronic juvenile offenders. The adolescents were administered a comprehensive psychological assessment, including an early version of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) at intake and followed for an average of five years post-release. The PCL:YV consists of four interrelated factors (Affective, Interpersonal, Lifestyle, and Antisocial tendencies). Follow-up criminal offenses were dichotomized as yes/no and consisted of misdemeanor and felony convictions. Using Mplus software (Muthen & Muthen, 2001) structural equation modeling results found good model fit for the latent variables of psychopathy and antisocial behavior with the PCL:YV accounting for a modest, but significant amount of variance (7%). Adding a measure that assessed instrumental violence as a predictor variable improved variance accounted for to 12% with both the Antisocial tendencies factor of the PCL:YV and instrumental aggression providing unique and significant variance to the prediction of antisocial behavior. Implications for assessing psychopathy and antisocial behavior in adolescent offenders will be discussed.

80. Psychopathy Traits and Selective Impairments in Attentional Functioning
Authors: 1. Naomi Sadeh [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]
2. Edelyn Verona [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]

The current study investigated how mechanisms of attention that have been well-characterized in the cognitive psychology literature (Lavie, Hirst, De Fockert, & Viding, 2004; Maylor & Lavie, 1998) may be differentially associated with psychopathic traits in non-incarcerated men. Previous research on cognition and psychopathy indicates that primary psychopathic traits are associated with overfocused attention and/or reduced processing of information peripheral to the focus of attention; conversely, deficits in executive functioning, such as working memory and cognitive control, are implicated in secondary psychopathic traits. A selective attention task and cognitive control task were administered to examine the relationship between dimensions of psychopathic traits and behavioral indices of these mechanisms of attention. Results revealed a significant relationship between traits typically associated with primary psychopathy (e.g., low anxiety, social dominance) and reduced processing of task-irrelevant distractors, suggesting diminished basic attentional capacity among individuals high on these traits. In contrast, characteristics linked to secondary psychopathy (e.g., aggression, substance use, blame externalization) showed a positive relationship with impaired working memory functioning, indicative of deficits in cognitive control. These results suggest that psychopathic traits are differentially related to selective impairments in attentional functioning, which may help explain the observed heterogeneity in psychopathic manifestations.

81. Psychopathy and Emotion Memory
Authors: 1. Samantha Glass [University of Wisconsin-Madison]
2. Joseph Newman [University of Wisconsin-Madison]

The response modulation hypothesis specifies that psychopathic individuals have difficulty processing information outside of their primary attentional focus. To explore the applicability of this model to affective processing, we examined how emotion influences the memory of psychopathic individuals for information both within and outside of their primary focus. In previous work, psychopathic offenders recalled more emotion words than neutral words, but failed to exhibit this bias for the location of emotion words (Glass & Newman, 2007). The current study tests the hypothesis that psychopathic individuals can process secondary information if it is integrated within their attentional focus. Thirty-nine offenders have thus far been classified using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003) and the Welsh Anxiety Scale (Welsh, 1956), and have performed a task in which emotion memory bias was examined in a primary (word recall) and secondary (word color recall) condition. As predicted, making secondary information (color) an intrinsic aspect of the attended stimuli (the word), leads to similar performance in both groups. Both psychopathic and control offenders exhibit an emotion memory bias for emotional words as well as their colors. We discuss the implications of these findings which indicate that when part of their primary attentional focus, emotion can influence information processing in psychopathic individuals.

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